Advertisement

The Loose Coupling of Jobs

The Subcontracting of Everyone?
  • Nancy DiTomaso
Part of the Plenum Studies in Work and Industry book series (SSWI)

Abstract

There are many changes under way in organizations and employment that pro-foundly affect the nature of society. Organizations are said to be increasingly knowledge-based (i.e., populated by highly educated and technically trained workers; Drucker, 1988), boundaryless (i.e., open and permeable; Hirschhorn and Gilmore 1992), interconnected (via partnerships, alliances, and networks; Hamel, Doz, and Prahalad 1989; Johnston and Lawrence 1988; Kanter 1989), engaged in customized production (the flexible organization; Piore and Sabel 1984), both global and diverse (Ohmae 1995; Reich 1991), and subject to continuous discontinuous change (Limerick and Cunnington 1993). In other words, organizational hierarchy is being dismantled and decoupled—“de-differentiated” according to Clegg (1990; see also Heckscher 1995). Furthermore, global enterprise webs spill out of formal organizational boundaries (Granovetter 1985; Miles and Snow 1986; Orton and Weick 1990; Reich 1991), creating new issues regarding accountability and evaluation. Limerick and Cunnington (1993); call this the “new” organization.

Keywords

Medical Doctor Professional Association Psychological Contract Middle Manager Knowledge Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, A. 1988. The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aronowitz, S. and W. DiFazio. 1994. The Jobless Future: Sci-Tech and the Dogma of Work. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bardwick, J. M. 1991. Danger in the Comfort Zone: From Boardroom to Mailroom—How to Break the Entitlement Habit That’s Killing American Business. New York: AMACOM.Google Scholar
  4. Barnard, C. 1938. The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Belous, R. S. 1989. The Contingent Economy: The Growth of the Temporary, Part-Time, and Subcontracted Workforce. McLean, VA: National Planning Association.Google Scholar
  6. Bendix, R. 1956. Work and Authority in Industry. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Block, F. L. 1996. The Vampire State. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  8. Borys, B. and D. B. Jemison. 1989. “Hybrid Arrangements as Strategic Alliances: Theoretical Issues in Organizational Combinations.” Academy of Management Review l4(2):234–249.Google Scholar
  9. Bridges, W. 1994. “The End of the Job.” Fortune (September 19):62–74.Google Scholar
  10. Castro, J. 1993. “Disposable Workers.” Time (March 29):42–47.Google Scholar
  11. Chao, C. C., N. DiTomaso, and G. F. Farris. 1998. “Attitudes toward Organizational Change: Effects of Self-interest, Competitive Values, Favoritism, and Ethnicity.” Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
  12. Clegg, S. R. 1990. Modern Organizations: Organization Studies in the Postmodern World. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Coser, L. A. 1971. Masters of Sociological Thought, 2nd ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.Google Scholar
  14. Davis-Blake, A. and B. Uzzi. 1993. “Determinants of Employment Externalization: A Study of Temporary Workers and Independent Contractors.” Administrative Science Quarterly 38:195–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DiTomaso, N. 1987. “Symbolic Media and Social Solidarity: The Foundations of Corporate Culture.” Pp.105–134 in Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Vol. 5, edited by S. B. Bacharach and N. DiTomaso. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  16. Drucker, P. F. 1988. “The Coming of the New Organization.” Harvard Business Review 66 (January-February):45–53.Google Scholar
  17. Drucker, P. F. 1993. Post-Capitalist Society. New York: HarperBusiness.Google Scholar
  18. Durkheim, E. 1956. The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  19. Economic Report of the President. 1994. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  20. Emery, F. 1982. “Socio-Technical Foundations for a New Social Order?” Human Relations 35:1095–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Etzioni, A. 1961. A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  22. Etzioni, A. 1975. A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations, 2nd ed. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  23. Ferguson, T. W. 1994. “Temp Tycoon Steers Jobseekers Off the Straight and Narrow.” The Wall Street Journal (October 4):A19.Google Scholar
  24. Fierman, J. 1994. “The Contingency Work Force.” Fortune (January 24):30–36.Google Scholar
  25. Freeland, D. 1994. “21st Century, for Communicators, It’s Already Here.” IABC Communication World (December):36–38.Google Scholar
  26. Fukuyama, F. 1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  27. Gerlach, M. L. 1997. Alliance Capitalism: The Social Organization of Complex Organizations. New York: Free Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gordon, D. M. 1996. Fat and Mean: The Corporate Squeeze of Working Americans and the Myth of Managerial “Downsizing.” New York: Martin Kessler Books/Free Press.Google Scholar
  29. Gouldner, A. W. 1957. A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations, 2nd ed. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  30. Granovetter, M. 1985. “Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness.” American Journal of Sociology 91(3):481–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hall, R. H. 1968. “Professionalization and Bureaucratization.” American Sociological Review 33(1):92–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hamel, G., Y. L. Doz, and C. K. Prahalad. 1989. “Collaborate with Your Competitors—And Win.” Harvard Business Review 67(1):133–139.Google Scholar
  33. Harrison, B. 1994. Lean and Mean: The Changing Landscape of Corporate Power. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  34. Harrison, B. and B. Bluestone. 1988. The Great U-Turn: Corporate Restructuring and the Polarization of America. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Heckscher, C. 1995. White-Collar Blues: Management Loyalties in an Age of Corporate Restructuring. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  36. Heneman, R. and C. Von Hippel. 1995. “Balancing Group and Individual Rewards: Rewarding Individual Contributions to the Team.” Compensation and Benefits Review (July-August):63–68.Google Scholar
  37. Henkoff, R. 1993. “Winning the New Career Game.” Fortune (July 12):46–49.Google Scholar
  38. Hirschhorn, L. & T. Gilmore. 1992. “The New Boundaries of The ‘Boundaryless’ Company.” Harvard Business Review (May-June): 104–115.Google Scholar
  39. Johnson, K. 1994. “Evolution of the Workplace Alters Office Relationships.” New York Times (October 5):B1, B8.Google Scholar
  40. Johnston, R. and P. R. Lawrence. 1988. “Beyond Vertical Integration-The Rise of the Value-Adding Partnership.” Harvard Business Review (July-August):94–101.Google Scholar
  41. Jonas, N. 1986. “The Hollow Corporation.” Business Week (March 3):56–59.Google Scholar
  42. Kalleberg, A. L. 2000. “Nonstandard Employment Relations: Part-Time, Temporary, and Contract Work.” Annual Review of Sociology 26:341–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kanter, R. M. 1983. The Change Masters. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  44. Kanter, R. M. 1989. When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenges of Strategy, Management, and Careers in the 1990s. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  45. Kanter, R. M. 1995. World Class: Thriving Locally in the Global Economy. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  46. Kanter, R. M. 1997. Rosabeth Moss Kanter on the Frontiers of Management. Boston: HBS Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kotkin, J. 1993. Tribes: How Race, Religion, and Identity Determine Success in the New Global Economy. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  48. Kramer, R. M. and T. R. Tyler. 1996. Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Lancaster, H. 1994. “You and Only You, Must Stay in Charge of Your Employability.” Wall Street Journal (November 15):B1.Google Scholar
  50. Lawler, E. E., III and G. Jenkins. 1990. “Strategic Reward Systems.” Pp. 1009–1047 in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, edited by M. Dunnette and L. Hough. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  51. Limerick, D. and B. Cunnington. 1993. Managing the New Organization: A Blueprint for Networks and Strategic Alliances. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  52. Long, J. S., P. D. Allison, and R. McGinnis. 1993. “Rank Advancement in Academic Careers: Sex Differences and the Effects of Productivity.” American Sociological Review 58(5):703–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Meyerson, D., K. E. Weick, and R. M. Kramer. 1996. “Swift Trust and Temporary Groups.” Pp. 166–195 in Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research, edited by R. M. Kramer and T. R. Tyler. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Miles, R. E. and C. C. Snow. 1986. “Network Organizations: New Concepts for New Firms.” California Management Review 28(3):62–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mintzberg, H. 1979. The Structuring of Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  56. Special Issue on Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements. 1996. Monthly Labor Review (October).Google Scholar
  57. Morgan, G. 1993. Imaginization: The Art of Creative Management. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. Munk, N. 1998. “The New Organization Man.” Fortune (March l6):63–74.Google Scholar
  59. Ohmae, K. 1995. The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  60. Orton, J. D. and K. E. Weick. 1990. “Loosely Coupled Systems: A Reconceptualization.” Academy of Management Review 15(2):203–223.Google Scholar
  61. Ouchi, W. 1981. Theory Z. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
  62. Patterson, J. 1994. “Welcome to the Company That Isn’t There.” Fortune (October 17):86.Google Scholar
  63. Piore, M. J. and C. F. Sabel. 1984. The Second Industrial Divide. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  64. Powell, W. W. 1987. “Hybrid Organizational Arrangements.” California Management Review 30:67–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Powell, W. W. 1990. “Neither Market Nor Hierarchy: Network Forms of Organization.” Pp. 295–336 in Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 12, edited by B. Staw. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  66. Reich, Robert. 1991. The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st-century Capitalism. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  67. Rifkin, J. 1995. The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era. New York: Tarcher/Putnam.Google Scholar
  68. Rousseau, D. M. 1995. Psychological Contracts in Organizations: Understanding Written and Unwritten Agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. Schein, E. H. 1985. Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  70. Schwartz, M. and F. Romo. 1993. “The Rise and Fall of Detroit: How the American Automobile Industry Destroyed Its Capacity to Compete.” Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  71. Sennett, R. 1994. “Back to Class Warfare.” New York Times (December 27):A21.Google Scholar
  72. Shrivastava, P. 1995. “Ecocentric Management for a Risk-Society.” Academy of Management Review 20(1):118–137.Google Scholar
  73. Smith, V. 1997. “The Fractured World of the Temporary Worker: Cooperation and Ambivalence in a High-Tech Manufacturing Setting.” Paper presented at the American Sociological Association Meetings, August, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  74. Starr, P. 1982. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  75. Stewart, T. A. 1996a. “Looking Out for No. 1.” Fortune 133(1):33.Google Scholar
  76. Stewart, T. A. 1996b. “You, Inc.: The Organizational Chart.” Fortune 133(l):66–67.Google Scholar
  77. Swoboda, F. 1993. “Growing Ranks of Part-Time Workers are Finding Fewer Benefits.” News and Observer (September 12): 5F.Google Scholar
  78. Thurow, L. 1992. Head to Head: The Coming Economic Battle among Japan, Europe, and America. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  79. Thurow, L. 1996. The Future of Capitalism: How Today’s Economic Forces Shape Tomorrow’s World. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  80. Trice, H. M. and J. M. Beyer. 1993. The Culture of Work Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  81. Victor, B. and C. Stephens. 1994. “The Dark Side of the New Organizational Forms: An Editorial Essay.” Organization Science 5(4):479–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vollmer, H. M. and D. L. Mills, eds. 1966. Professionalization. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  83. Weick, K. 1979. The Social Psychology of Organizing, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  84. Williamson, O. E. 1975. Markets and Hierarchies. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  85. Williamson, O. E. 1985. The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  86. Zuboff, S. 1988. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy DiTomaso
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Organization ManagementRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations