Advertisement

Using Arrested Solid — Solid Multiphase Reactions in Geological Materials to Deduce the Rate of Crustal Uplift

  • William E. Glassley
  • Annemarie Meike

Abstract

The history geological terrains experience can be traced as a series of temperature and pressure changes. Each change drives the system toward a new state of thermodynamic equilibrium. The resultant overprinted rock fabrics, textures and chemical heterogeneities can be difficult to interpret. However, if carefully chosen, features from the scale of kilometers to nanometers can be used to reconstruct the history of mountain systems. Uplift of the Sri Lankan Central Highlands was rapid enough to preserve well-developed symplectite textures, some of which represent arrested solid-state diffusion-controlled reactions of garnet + O2 to form orthopyroxene + plagioclase + magnetite, as the rocks were exhumed from over 30 km in the earth’s crust. Our objective has been to determine the reaction mechanisms responsible for symplectite development, and to establish the time interval over which these reactions occurred, to constrain the rate of mountain uplift. Considering that the most rapid mechanism is solid st te grain-boundary diffusion of oxygen, the reaction time can be constrained by bounding the rate of oxygen supply to the reaction site. The solid state grain boundary diffusion rate of oxygen has been inferred to be ca. 10−14 m2-sec (Farver and Yund, 1991), but is sensitive to inferred grain boundary width. The range of rates thus determined allows the distinction between rapid uplift similar to that of the Himalayan Mountains, and the slow and progressive erosion of a less dramatic terrain. Further constraints on diffusion control and energetic relationships are determined from crystallographic relationships between the reactant and product phases, and submicron scale microstructures.

Keywords

Boundary Diffusion Oxygen Fugacity Geological Material Boundary Width Rapid Uplift 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ashworth, J.R., 1993, Fluid-absent diffusion kinetics of Al inferred from retrograde metamorphic coronas. Am. Min. 78:331.Google Scholar
  2. Ashworth, J. R., Sheplev, V. S. Bryxina, N. A., Kolobov, V. Y. and Reverdatto V.V. 1998a, Diffusion- controlled corona reaction and overstepping of equilibrium in a garnet granulite, Yenisey Ridge,Siberia. J. Met. Geol. 16:231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashworth, J. R., Sheplev, V. S. Bryxina, N. A., Kolobov, V. Y. and Reverdatto V.V. 1998b, Textures of diffusion-controlled reaction in contact-metamorphosed Mg-rich granulite, Kokchetav area, Kazakhstan. Mineral. Mag. 62:213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chung, Y-C. and Wuensch, B. J., 1996, Assessment of the accuracy of Le Claire’s equation for determination of grain boundary diffusion coefficients from solute concentration gradients. Materials Letters. 28:47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Farver, J.R. and Yund, R.A., 1990, The effect of hydrogen, oxygen, and water fugacity on oxygen diffusion in alkali feldspar. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:2953.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Farver, J.R. and Yund, R.A., 1991, Measurement of oxygen grain boundary diffusion in natural, fine-grained, quartz aggregates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:1597.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Farver, J.R. and Yund, R.A., 1995a, Grain boundary diffusion of oxygen, potassium and calcium in natural and hot-pressed feldspar aggregates. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 118:340.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Farver, J.R. and Yund, R.A., 1995b, Interphase boundary diffusion of oxygen and potassium in K-feldspar/quartz aggregates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:3697.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Farver, J.R. and Yund, R.A., 1996, Volume and grain boundary diffusion of calcium in natural and hot- pressed calcite agregates. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 123:77.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Farver, J.R. and Yund, R.A., 1998, Oxygen grain boundary diffusion in natural and hot-pressed calcite agregates. Earth Planet. Sci. Lets. 161:189.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Faulhaber, S. and Raith, M., 1991, Geothermometry and geobarometry of high-grade rocks: a case study on garnet-pyroxene granulites in southern Sri Lanka. Min. Mag. 55:33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kehelpannala, K.V.W., 1991, Structural evolution of high-grade terrains in Sri Lanka with special reference to the areas around Dodanaslanda and Kandy, in:The Crystalline Crust of Sri Lanka, Part I, A. Kroner, ed., Geological Survey Department, Prof. Paper No. 5, Republic of Sri Lanka, Colombo.Google Scholar
  13. Kriegsman, L., 1991, Structural geology of the Sri Lanka basement - A preliminary review, in.The Crystalline Crust of Sri Lanka, Part I, A. Kroner, ed., Geological Survey Department, Prof. Paper No.5, Republic of Sri Lanka, Colombo.Google Scholar
  14. Le Claire, A.D. 1963. The analysis of grain boundary diffusion measurements. Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14:351.Google Scholar
  15. Luttge, A. and Metz, P. 1993. Mechanism and kinetics of the reaction- 1dolomite plus 2quartz = ldiopside plus 2 CO2 - a comparison of rock-sample and of powder experiments. Contr. Min. Pet. 115:155.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. O’Brien, P. J., 1999, Assymetric zoning profiles in garnet from HP-HT granulite and implications for volume and grain-boundary diffusion. Mineral. Mag. 63:227.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sandiford, M., Powell, R., Martin, S.F., and Perera, L.R.K., 1988, Thermal and baric evolution of garnet granulites from Sri Lanka. J. Metamorp. Geol. 6:351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schenk, V., Raase, P., and Schumacher, R., 1991, Metamorphic zonation and P-T history of the Highland Complex in Sri Lanka, in:The Crystalline Crust of Sri Lanka, Part I, A. Kroner, ed., Geological Survey Department, Prof. Paper No. 5, Republic of Sri Lanka, Colombo.Google Scholar
  19. Whipple, R.T.P., 1954, Concentration contours in grain boundary diffusion. Philos. Mag. 45:1225.zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • William E. Glassley
    • 1
  • Annemarie Meike
    • 1
  1. 1.Earth and Environmental Sciences DirectorateLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA

Personalised recommendations