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Examining Bacterial Population Diversity within the Octopus Spring Microbial Mat Community

  • M. J. Ferris
  • S. C. Nold
  • C. M. Santegoeds
  • D. M. Ward

Abstract

The importance of preserving biodiversity has gained considerable attention as the possibility of destroying our remaining natural ecosystems has been realized (Schulze and Mooney, 1993). Consequently questions about how the loss of vast, species-rich habitats such as rain forests might influence global scale processes are receiving serious consideration. A more pragmatic view holds that a reduction in species diversity might result in the loss of valuable commodities, such as natural compounds with medicinal properties. Certainly bacteria influence processes on a global scale and produce many of humanity’s most beneficial and commercially valuable products, yet sequence-based population surveys have proven that only a small minority of bacteria have been studied. Some recent findings underscore this point. In 1993, it was discovered that macroscopic symbionts of surgeonfish are actually bacterial cells (Ahern, 1993; Angert et al., 1993), designated Epulopiscium fishelsoni. This bacterium is the largest prokaryote known, and its existence has forced a reevaluation of the limit of prokaryotic cell size. In the same year, new bacteria that perform a novel type of photosynthesis, phototropic iron oxidation, were discovered (Widdel et al., 1993; Ehrenreich and Widdel, 1994), presenting a possible new explanation for the origin of banded iron formations. In 1994, an entirely new branch of Archaea was discovered. Termed the Korarchaeota, these bacteria represent the most deeply divergent archaeal group known (Barns et al., 1994,1996). With such striking diversity now revealed, it seems certain that new insights into nutrient cycling and bacterial metabolites remain to be discovered.

Keywords

Enrichment Culture Banded Iron Formation Cyanobacterial Population Methanobacterium Thermoautotrophicum Selective Enrichment Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Ferris
    • 1
  • S. C. Nold
    • 1
  • C. M. Santegoeds
    • 1
  • D. M. Ward
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA

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