A Geomorphological Approach to Reconstructing Archaeological Settlement Patterns Based on Surficial Artifact Distribution

Replacing Humans on the Landscape
  • Lisa E. Wells

Abstract

Physical and cultural landscapes evolve in response to a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. Therefore any attempt to understand landscape evolution requires the integration of anthropology and the physical sciences. As such, both landscape archaeology and geomorphology are interdependent and interdisciplinary endeavors. Unfortunately, we are hampered in our re-creation of past landscapes by the set of assumptions and the scientific language we bring to this endeavor. This chapter attempts to present a geomorphological approach to re-creating physical and cultural landscapes and in this process elucidates the strengths and weaknesses of this approach.

Keywords

Uranium Radar Sedimentation Shale Stratification 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrus, C. F. T., Crowe, D. E., and Sandweiss, D. H., 1998, Mid-Holocene El Niño Variation Recorded in Otoliths from Preceramic Peruvian Middens, Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 30:A–16.Google Scholar
  2. Baruch, U., 1994, The Late Quaternary Pollen Record of the Near East. In Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, edited by O. Bar-Yosef and R. S. Kra, pp. 103–119. Radiocarbon 1994, Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  3. Bettis, E. A., III, 1995, Archaeological Geology of the Archaic Period in North America. Geological Society of America Special Paper 297, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  4. Binford, L. R., 1992, Seeing the Present and Interpreting the Past - and Keeping Things Straight. In Space, Time, and Archaeological Landscapes, edited by J. Rossignol and L. Wandsnider, pp. 43–59. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Bintliff, J. L., and van Zeist, W., 1982, Palaeoclimates, Palaeoenvironments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory. British Archaeological Reports, International Series, 133.Google Scholar
  6. Birkeland, P. W., 1984, Soils and Geomorphology, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  7. Birkeland, P. W., Machette, M. N., and Haller, K. M., 1991, Soils as a Tool for Applied Quaternary Geology. Miscellaneous Publication 91-3, Utah Geological and Mineral Survey.Google Scholar
  8. Birkeland, P. W., and Noller, J. S., 1997, Rock and Mineral Weathering. In Dating an Earthquake: Applications of Quaternary Geochronology in Paleoseismology, edited by J. M. Sowers, J. S. Noller and W. R. Lettis, Washington, DC, pp. 2–453-2–281. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Agency CR5562, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  9. Butzer, K. W., 1975, Patterns of Environmental Change in the Near East during Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Times. In Problems in Prehistory: North Africa and the Levant, edited by F. Wendorf and A. E. Marks, pp. 389–410. Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas.Google Scholar
  10. Chauchat, C., 1975, The Paijan Complex, Pampa de Cupisnique, Peru, Nawpa Pacha 13: 85–96.Google Scholar
  11. Chauchat, C., 1978, Additional Observations on the Paijan Complex, Pampa de Cupisnique, Peru. Nawpa Pacha 16:51–65.Google Scholar
  12. Chauchat, C., 1988, Early Hunter-Gatherers on the Peruvian Coast. In Peruvian Prehistory, edited by R. W. Keatinge, pp. 41–66. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  13. Christodoulou, D., 1959, The Evolution of the Rural Landuse Pattern in Cyprus. The World Land Use Survey, Monograph 2, Geographical Publications Limited, Cyprus.Google Scholar
  14. Colman, S. M., and Pierce, K. L., 1998, Classifications of Quaternary Geochronologic Methods. In Dating an Earthquake: Applications of Quaternary Geochronology in Paleoseismology, edited by J. M. Sowers, J. S. Noller, and W. R. Lettis, pp. 2–11 to 2–19. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Agency CR5562, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  15. Compton, R. R., 1985, Geology in the Field. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Constantinou, G., 1982, Geological Features and Ancient Exploitation for the Cupriferous Sulphide Orebodies of Cyprus. In Early Metallurgy in Cyprus, 4000-500 B.C., edited by J. D. Muhly, R. Maddin, and V. karageorghis, pp. 13–24. Pierides Foundation, Department of Antiquities, Republic of Cyprus, Larnaca.Google Scholar
  17. DeVries, T. J., and Wells, L. E., 1990, Thermally-Anomalous Holocene Molluskan Assemblages from Coastal Peru: Evidence for Paleogeographic Not Climatic Change. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 81:11–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DeVries, T. J., Ortlieb, L., Diaz, A., Wells, L., Hillaire-Mercel, C., 1996, Determining the Early History of El Niño. Science 276:965–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Downs, R. M., and Stea, D., 1977, Maps in Minds: Reflections on Cognitive Mapping. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Dunnell, R. C., 1992, The Notion Site. In Space, Time, and Archaeological Landscapes, edited by J. Rossignol and L. Wandsnider, pp. 21–41. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Eling, H., 1987, The Role of Irrigation Networks in Emerging Societal Complexity During Late Prehispanic Times. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.Google Scholar
  22. El-Moslimany, A. P., 1994, Evidence of Early Holocene Summer Precipitation in the Continental Middle East. In Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, edited by O. Bar-Yosef and R. S. Kra, pp. 121-130. Radiocarbon 1994, Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  23. Frye, J. C., and William, H. B., 1960, Classification of the Wisconsin Stage in the Lake Michigan Glacial Lobe, Illinois Geological Survey Circ. 285:1–16.Google Scholar
  24. Frye, J. C., and William, H. B., 1962, Note 27 - Morphostratigraphic Units in Pleistocene Stratigraphy,Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 46:112–113.Google Scholar
  25. Geyh, M. A., 1994, The Paleohydrology of the Eastern Mediterranean. In Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, edited by O. Bar-Yosef and R. S. Kra, pp. 131–145. Radiocarbon 1994, Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  26. Gifford, J. A., 1978, Paleogeography of Archaeological Sites of the Larnaca Lowlands, Southeastern Cyprus. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  27. Goldberg, P., 1994, Interpreting Late Quaternary Continental Sequences in Israel. In Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, edited by O. Bar-Yosef and R. S. Kra, pp. 89–102. Radiocarbon 1994, Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  28. Gould, P., and White, R., 1986, Mental Maps. Allen and Unwin, Boston.Google Scholar
  29. Grolier, M. J., Erickson, G. E., McCauley, J. F., and Morris, E. C., n.d., The Desert Landforms of Peru; A Preliminary Photographic Atlas, Interagency Report: Astrogeology 57, U.S. Geological Survey, 146 pp, Flagstaff, AZ.Google Scholar
  30. Harris, E. C., 1989, Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  31. Held, S. O., 1989, Early Prehistoric Island Archaeology in Cyprus: Configurations of Formative Culture Growth from the Pleistocene/Holocene Boundary to the mid-3rd Millennium B.C. Ph. D. Dissertation, Institute of Archaeology, University of London.Google Scholar
  32. Holliday, V. T., 1995, Late Quaternary Valley Fills on the Southern High Plains. Geological Society of America Memoir 186, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  33. Inbar, M., 1992, Rates of Fluvial Erosion in Basins with a Mediterranean Type Climate. Catena 19:393–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. karageorghis, V., 1968, Cyprus. Archaeologia Mundi Series, Nagel Publishers, Geneva.Google Scholar
  35. Keefer , D. K., deFrance, S. D., Moseley, M. E., Richardson, J. B., III, Satterlee, D. R., and Day-Lewis, A., 1998, Early Maritime Economy and El Niño events at Quebrada Tacahuay, Peru. Science 281:1833–1835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kempler, D., and Ben-Avraham, Z., 1987, The Tectonic Evolution of the Cyprean Arc. Annales Tectonicae 1:58–71.Google Scholar
  37. Knapp, A. B., 1993, Social Complexity: Incipience, Emergence and Development on Prehistoric Cyprus. Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 292:85–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Knapp, A. B., 1994, Emergence, Development and Decline on Bronze Age Cyprus. In Development and Decline in the Mediterranean Bronze Age, edited by C. Mathers and S. Stoddart, pp. 271–304. Sheffiel Archaeological Monographs, John Collis Publications, Sheffield.Google Scholar
  39. Knapp, A. B., Held, S. O., and Manning, S. W., 1994, The Prehistory of Cyprus: Problems and Prospects. Journal of World Prehistory 8:377–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Knapp, A. B., kassianidou, L., & Donnelly, M., 1998, The 1997 Excavations at Politiko Phorades, Cyprus. Old World Archaeology Newsletter 21:15–23.Google Scholar
  41. Kosmas, C., Danalatos, N., Cammeraat, L. H., Chabart, M., Diamantopoulos, J., Farand, R., Gutierrez, L., Jacob, A., Marques, H., Martinez Fernandez, J., Mizara, A., Moustakas, N., Nicolau, J. M., Oliveros, C., Pinna, G., Puddu, R., Puigdefabregas, J., Roxo, M., Simao, A., Stamou, G., Tomasi, N., Usai, D., and Vacca, A., 1997, The Effect of Land Use on Runoff and Soil Erosion Rates Under Mediterranean Conditions, Catena 29:45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lahee, F. H., 1961, Field Geology. MacGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Lort, J. M., 1971, The Tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean: A Geophysical View. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 9:189–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MacArthur, R. H., and Wilson, E. O., 1967, The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  45. Malpass, M. A., 1983, The Preceramic Occupations of the Casma Valley, Peru. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  46. Mandel, R. D., and Simmons, A. H., 1997, Geoarchaeology of the Akrotiri Aetokremnos Rockshelter, Southern Cyprus. Geoarchaeology 12:567–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McFadden, L. D., Ritter, J. B., and Wells, S. G., 1989, Use of Multiparameter Relative-Age Methods for Age Estimation and Correlation of Alluvial Fan Surfaces on a Desert Piedmont, Eastern Mojave Desert, California, Quaternary Research 32:276–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McKenzie, D. P., 1970, Plate Tectonics of the Mediterranean Region, Nature 226: 239–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Merrillees, R. S, 1982, Early Metallurgy in Cyprus 4000-500 B.C., Historical Summary, 0 B.C. In Early Metallurgy in Cyprus, 4000-500 B.C., edited by J. D. Muhly, R. Maddin, and V. karageorghis, pp. 373–376. Pierides Foundation, Department of Antiquities, Republic of Cyprus, Larnaca.Google Scholar
  50. Moore, J. D., 1988, Prehistoric Raised Field Agriculture in the Casma Valley, Peru, Journal of Field Archaeology 15:265–276.Google Scholar
  51. Moore, J. D., 1991, Cultural Responses to Environmental Catastrophes: Post-El Niño Subsistence on the Prehistoric North Coast of Peru, Latin American Antiquity 2:27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Moseley, M. E., 1975, The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization. Cummings Publishing Company, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  53. Moseley, M. E., 1983, The Good Old Days Were Better: Agrarian Collapse and Tectonics. American Anthropologist 85:773–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moseley, M. E., 1987, Punctuated Equilibrium: Searching the Ancient Record for El Niño, Quarterly Review of Archaeology 8:7–10.Google Scholar
  55. Moseley, M. E., 1992, The Incas and Their Ancestors, The Archaeology of Peru, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  56. Moseley, M. E., Feldman, R. A., Ortloff, C. R., and Navarez, A., 1983, Principles of Agrarian Collapse in the Cordillera Negra, Peru, Annals of the Carnegie Museum 52:299–327.Google Scholar
  57. Muhly, J. D., 1982, The Nature of Trade in the LBA Mediterranean: The Organization of the Metal’s Trade and Their Role in Cyprus. In Early Metallurgy in Cyprus, 4000-500 B.C., edited by J. D. Muhly, R. Maddin, and V. karageorghis, pp. 13–24. Pierides Foundation, Department of Antiquities, Republic of Cyprus, Larnaca.Google Scholar
  58. Myers, J. S., 1976, Erosion Surfaces and Ignimbrite Eruption, Measures of Andean Uplift in Northern Peru, Geological Journal 11:29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Noller, J. S., 1993, Late Cenozoic Stratigraphy and Soil Geomorphology of the Peruvian Desert, 3°-18°S: A Long-Term Record of Hyperaridity and El Nino. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  60. North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature, 1983, North American Stratigraphic Code, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 67:841–875.Google Scholar
  61. Ossa, P., 1973, A Survey of the Lithic Preceramic Occupation of the Moche Valley, North Coastal Peru. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  62. Ossa, P., 1978, Paijn in Early Andean Prehistory: The Moche Valley Evidence. In Early Man in American for a Circum-Pacific Perspective, edited by A. L. Bryan, pp. 290–295. Department of Anthropology, Occasional Papers No. 1, University of Alberta, Edmonton.Google Scholar
  63. Ossa, P., and Moseley, M. E., 1972, La Cumbre: A Preliminary Report on Research into the Early Lithic Occupation of the Moche Valley, Peru. Nawpa Pacha 9:1–17.Google Scholar
  64. Patterson, T. C., 1983, Historical Development of a Coastal Andean Social Formation in Central Peru, 6000 to 5000 B. C. In Investigations of the Andean Past, edited by D. H. Sandweiss, pp. 21–31. Cornell Latin American Studies Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  65. Poole, A. J., 1992, Sedimentology, Neotectonics and Geomorphology Related to Tectonic Uplift and Sea Level Change: Quaternary of Cyprus. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  66. Poole, A. J., Shimmield, G. B., and Robertson, A. H. F., 1990, Late Quaternary Uplift of the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus: Uranium Series Dating of Pleistocene Coral. Geology 18:894–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pozorski, S., and Pozorski, T., 1986, Recent Excavations at Pampa Las Llamas-Moxeke, a Complex Initial Period Site in Peru. Journal of Field Archaeology 13:381–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pozorski, S., and Pozorski, T., 1987, Early Settlement and Subsistence in the Casma Valley, Peru. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  69. Pozorski, S., and Pozorski, T., 1990, Huaynunà, a Late Cotton Preceramic Site on the North Coast of Peru. Journal of Field Archaeology 17, 17–26.Google Scholar
  70. Pozorski, S., and Pozorski, T., 1992, Early Civilization in the Casma Valley, Peru, Antiquity 66:845–870.Google Scholar
  71. Pozorski, S., and Pozorski, T., 1995, Paleoenvironment at Almejas, a Mid-Holocene Site in the Casma Valley, Peru. Paper presented at 60th Annual Meeting, Society for American Archaeology, Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  72. Pozorski, S., and Pozorski, T., in press, Un Entierro Preceramico en el Sitio de Almejas en el Valle de Casma, Peru. In En El Nombre del Padre: Reflexiones sobre los Antepasados en las Culturas del Norte del Peru, edited by L. Millones and M. Millones. Editorial Horizonte, Lima.Google Scholar
  73. Pozorski, T., Pozorski, S., and Rick, J., 1982, A Bird Geoglyph near Casma, Peru, Andean Past 3:165–186.Google Scholar
  74. Reese, D. S., 1995, The Pleistocene Vertebrate Sites and Fauna of Cyprus. Geological Survey Department, Bulletin No. 9, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Republic of Cyprus.Google Scholar
  75. Reid, C., 1908, Report on Water Supply in Cyprus. Government Printer, Nicosia (Cited in Thirgood, 1987, p. 29).Google Scholar
  76. Riedinger, M., Steinitz-kannan, M., Last, W., and Brenner, M., 1998, A 6100 YR El Niño Record from the Galapagos Islands, Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 30:A–161.Google Scholar
  77. Roberts, N., and Wright, H. E., Jr., 1993, Vegetational, Lake Level and Climate History of the Near East and Southeast Asia. In Global Climates Since the Last Glacial Maximum, edited by H. E. Wright, J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, R. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, pp. 194–220. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  78. Robertson, A. H. F., 1977, Tertiary Uplift History of the Troodos Massif, Cyprus, Geological Society of America Bulletin 88:1763–1772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rodbell, D. T., Seltzer, G. O., Anderson, D. M., Abbott, M. B., Enfield, D. B., and Newman, J. H., 1999, An ~ 15,000-Year Record of El Nino-Driven Alluviation in Southwestern Ecuador, Science, 283:516–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rossignol-Strick, M., 1993, Late Quaternary Climate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Paleorient 19:135–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sandweiss, D. H., Richardson, J. B., III, Reitz, E. J., Rollins, H. B., and Maasch, K. A., 1996b, Geoarchaeological Evidence from Peru for a 5000 Year B.P. Onset of El Niño. Science 273:1531–1533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sandweiss, D. H., Richardson, J. B. III, Reitz, E. J., Rollins, H. B., and Maasch, K. A., 1996a, Determining the Early History of El Niño. Science 276:966–967.Google Scholar
  83. Satterlee, D. R., 1993, The Impact of a Fourteenth-Century El Niño Flood on an Indigenous Population Near Ilo, Peru. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Florida, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  84. Shimada, I., 1994, Pampa Grande and the Mochica Culture, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  85. Simmons, A. H., 1991, Humans, Island Colonization and Pleistocene Extinctions in the Mediterranean:The View from Akrotiri-Aetokremnos, Cyprus. Antiquity 65:857–869.Google Scholar
  86. Stanley, D. J., and Warne, A. G., 1997, Holocene Sea-Level Change and Early Human Utilization of Deltas. GSA Today 7:1–7.Google Scholar
  87. Steinitz-kannan, M., Riedinger, M. A., Last, W., Brenner, M., and Miller, M. C., 1997, Un Registro de 6000 Aos de Manifestos del Fenomeno de El Niño en Sedimentos de Lagunas de las Islas Galapagos. In Seminario Internacional “Consequencias Climaticas e Hidrologicas del Evento El Niño a Escala Regional y Local,” edited by E. Cadier and R. Galarrage, pp. 79–88. Memorias Tecnicas, Edicion Prelimina, ORSTOM/INAMHI.Google Scholar
  88. Strong, W. D., and Evans, C, 1952, Cultural Stratigraphy in the Virú Valley, Northern Peru. Columbia University Studies in Archaeology and Ethnology 4, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Tello, J. C., 1956, Arqueologia del Valle de Casma, Culturas: Chavin, Santa o Huaylas Yunga, y Sub-Chimu. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
  90. Thirgood, J. V., 1987, Cyprus: A Chronicle of its Forest, Land and People. University of British Columbia Press, British Columbia.Google Scholar
  91. Trumbore, S. E., 1998, Radiocarbon Geochronology. In Dating an Earthquake: Applications of Quaternary Geochronology in Paleoseismology, edited by J. M. Sowers, J. S. Noller, and W. R. Lettis, pp. 2–69 to 2–98. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Agency CR5562, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  92. van Andel, T. H., and Zangger, E., 1990, Landscape Stability and Destabilization in the Prehistory of Greece. In Man’s Role in Shaping of the Eastern Mediterranean Landscape, edited by S. Bottema, G. Entjes-Nieborg, and W. van Zeist, pp. 139–157. Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  93. vita Finzi, C., 1993, Evaluating Late Quaternary Uplift in Greece and Cyprus. In Magmatic Processes and Plate Tectonics, edited by H. M. Prichard, T. Alabaster, N. B. W. Harris, and C. R. Neary, pp. 417–424. Geological Society Special Publications No. 76. Geological Society of London, London, UK.Google Scholar
  94. Wells, L. E., 1988, Holocene Fluvial and Shoreline History as a Function of Human and Geologic Factors in Arid Northern Peru. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  95. Wells, L. E., Gerth, R. A., Noller, J. S., and Whitehill, C. S., 1998, Quantifying Anthropogenic Hillslope Erosion on Mount Kreatos, Cyrpus, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 30:A–143.Google Scholar
  96. Wells, L. E., and Noller, J. S., 1999, Holocene Coevolution of the Physical Landscape and Human Settlement in Northern Coastal Peru. Geoarchaeology 14:755–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Willey, G. R., 1953, Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Virú Valley, Peru. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 155, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  98. Wilson, D. J., 1988, Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in the Lower Santa Valley Peru. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  99. Wilson, D. J., 1998, The Casma Valley Project (1989-1995). http://www. smu. edu/~anthrop/dwilson. html#RESEARCHPROGRAMS.Google Scholar
  100. Zreda, M. G., and Phillips, F. M., 1998, Quaternary Dating by Cosmogenic Nuclide Buildup in Surficial Materials. In Dating an Earthquake: Applications of Quaternary Geochronology in Paleoseismology,edited by J. M. Sowers, J. S. Noller, and W. R. Lettis, pp. 2–101 to 2–127. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Agency CR5562, Washington, DC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa E. Wells
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations