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The diaphragm is a musculo-aponeurotic apron that divides the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The diaphragm’s internal attachments extend from the sternum anteriorly to the first three lumbar vertebrae posteriorly. The lateral attachments of the diaphragm extend from ribs six through twelve in an anterior to posterior orientation as well. The blood supply to the diaphragm derives from pericardiophrenic arteries, as well as multiple branches from both the abdominal aorta and intercostals. The phrenic nerves, which arise from the third, fourth and fifth cervical roots are responsible for the diaphragm’s innervation. The diaphragm normally contains three openings for important visceral structures. These include the inferior vena cava at the eighth thoracic vertebral level, the esophageal hiatus at the tenth level, and the aortic hiatus at the twelfth. The esophagus is accompanied by both right and left vagii and the aorta is accompanied by the thoracic duct and the azygous vein.
KeywordsBlunt Chest Trauma Esophageal Hiatus Diaphragmatic Injury Portable Chest Azygous Vein
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