ATP Synthesis from Carbon-based Fuels by Glycolysis and Glycogenolysis
The metabolic machinery needed to meet the energy demands of the myocyte without allowing [ATP] to fall is impressive. ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is usually sufficient to meet the constantly changing demands for energy (0.1–1 mM/s) in the heart. ATP production by glycolysis makes a quantitatively trivial contribution (0.03 mM/s) to overall ATP production by the normal myocyte. The amount of ATP produced from glucose by glycolysis is a small fraction of the amount made as a result of the oxidation of glucose. Nonetheless, because glucose and glycogen can be metabolized rapidly, they are important sources of ATP during rapid transitions to increased work or in ATP supply/demand mismatches, which occur in ischemia.
KeywordsFermentation Lactate NADPH Fructose Cytosol
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