Reversal of fluoride induced cell injury through elimination of fluoride and consumption of diet rich in essential nutrients and antioxidants

  • A. K. Susheela
  • Madhu Bhatnagar
Part of the Developments in Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry book series (DMCB, volume 37)


The objective of the present communication is to address the issues concerning reversal of fluoride induced cell injury and disease (i.e. fluorosis) through the elimination of fluoride and consumption of a diet containing essential nutrients and antioxidants. Humans afflicted with fluorosis, as a result of consuming fluoride contaminated water or food, have been investigated. Hospital based diagnostic procedure for early detection of fluorosis, through retrieval of history, clinical complaints, testing of blood, urine and drinking water for fluoride using ion selective electrode technology, along with X-ray of the forearm have been carried out. Confirmed cases of fluorosis were introduced to an intervention protocol consisting of (1) provision of safe drinking water with fluoride levels less than 1 mg/L and (2) counselling on nutritional supplementation with focus on adequate intake of calcium, vitamins C, E and antioxidants. The patients were monitored at frequent intervals up to one year and the results are reported. With a standardized early diagnosis, elimination of fluoride intake and supplementation of a diet rich in essential nutrients and antioxidants, we have shown that the fluorosis can be reversed. (Mol Cell Biochem 234/235: 335-340, 2002)

Key words

reversal of fluorosis nutritional supplementation antioxidant therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Susheela
    • 1
  • Madhu Bhatnagar
    • 1
  1. 1.Fluorosis Research and Rural Development FoundationDelhiIndia

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