The Role of Oxidative Stress in Nickel and Chromate Genotoxicity
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Some general principles regarding oxidative stress and molecular responses to toxic metals are presented in this manuscript. The remainder of the manuscript, however, will focus on the role of oxidative stress in particulate nickel-induced genetic damage and mutations. The phagocytosis of particulate nickel compounds and the dissolution of the particles inside the cell and the resulting oxidative stress produced in the nucleus is a key component of the nickel carcinogenic mechanism. The crosslinking of amino acids to DNA by nickel that does not involve direct participation of nickel in a ternary complex but nickel-induced oxidative stress will be discussed as well. The selective ability of particulate nickel compounds to silence the expression of genes located near heterochromatin and the effect of vitamin E on the genotoxicity and mutations induced by particulate and soluble nickel compounds will also be discussed. Particulate nickel compounds have been shown to produce more oxidative stress than water-soluble nickel compounds.
In addition to nickel, the role of oxidative stress in chromate-induced genotoxicity will also be discussed with particular attention directed to the effects ofvitamin E on mutations and chromosomal aberrations induced by chromate. (Mol Cell Biochem 234/235: 265–275, 2002)
Key wordscrosslinking phagocytosis vitamin E mutations chromosomal aberrations
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