Interactions of copper with glycated proteins:Possible involvement in the etiology of diabetic neuropathy

  • John W. Eaton
  • Mingwei Qian
Part of the Developments in Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry book series (DMCB, volume 37)

Abstract

Humans and animals with diabetes frequently develop peripheral vascular dysfunction and peripheral neuropathies. There is accumulating evidence that impaired peripheral nerve function may derive from diminished endoneural blood flow. The decrements in nerve blood flow may, in turn, be due to diminished endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Although a number of possible causes of this defective vasodilation have been suggested, none has been definitely proven. Regardless of the precise cause, the impaired vasodilatory activity may reflect diminished availability of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), variously thought to be nitric oxide or thiol adducts of nitric oxide. Other investigators have reported that administration of transition metal chelators to diabetic rats corrects EDRF-mediated arterial relaxation and restores both neural blood flow and nerve conduction velocity, suggesting the involvement of transition metals. Our investigations center about the hypothesis that glycated proteins bind transition metals such as copper and iron, and that such ‘glycochelates’ accumulate within the vasculature in diabetes and catalytically inactivate EDRF. In partial support of this hypothesis: (1) Glycated albumin binds ~ 3-fold greater amounts of both copper and iron. (2) Copper bound to glycated albumin remains redox active (e.g. capable of supporting the oxidation of ascorbic acid). (3) Copper and copper-containing glycochelates cause the rapid decomposition of one putative form of EDRF, nitrosocysteine. (4) The amount of exchangeable (i.e. chelatable) copper in the plasma of diabetic rats is approximately twice that in normal rat plasma. (5) Similarly, tail tendons of diabetic animals have about twice as much bound copper as do tendons of normal rats. (6) Implants bearing adsorbed glycated albumin placed in the peritonea of normal mice for 48 h accumulate ~ 5 times as much bound copper as do implants coated with control albumin. Overall, these observations support — but do not conclusively prove — the hypothesis that transition metals such as copper, bound to glycated proteins, may blunt normal EDRF-dependent relaxation of diabetic arteries and provide a rationale for the use of transition metal chelators in the therapy of diabetic vasculopathy and neuropathy. (Mol Cell Biochem 234/235: 135–142, 2002)

Key words

endothelium-derived relaxing factor diabetic neuropathy copper nitrosothiol nitric oxide glycation glycochelates 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. Eaton
    • 1
  • Mingwei Qian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and James Graham Brown Cancer CenterUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

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