Does Menopause Increase the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease?

  • Yvonne T. van der Schouw
Part of the Medical Science Symposia Series book series (MSSS, volume 17)

Abstract

In Westernized societies, most women die from coronary heart disease. Importantly, premenopausal women are at lower risk relative to men of comparable age and postmenopausal women [1,2]. Protection by endogenous oestrogens is a likely explanation, yet the question whether menopause increases the incidence of coronary hear disease has still not been answered satisfactorily yet.

Keywords

Estrogen Androgen Cardiol Alan 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. Menopause and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1987;316:1105–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gordon T, Kannel WB, Hjortland MC, McNamara PM. Menopause and coronary heart disease: The Framingham study. Ann Intern Med 1978;89:157–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tracey RE. Sex differences in coronary artery disease: Two opposing views. J Chron Dis 1966;19:1245–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tunstall-Pedoe H. Myth and paradox of coronary risk and the menopause. Lancet 1998; 351:1425–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schouw van der YT, Graaf van der Y, Steyerberg EW, Eijkemans MJC, Banga JD. Age at menopause as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Lancet 1996;347:714–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wuest JH, Dry TJ, Edwards JE. The degree of coronary atherosclerosis in bilaterally oophorectomized women. Circulation 1953;8:801–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rivin AU, Dimitroff SP. The incidence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in estrogen-treated males, and in females with a hypoestrogenic or a hyperestrogenic state. Circulation 1954;9:533–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Parrish HM, Carr CA, Hall DG, King TM. Time interval from castration in premenopausal women to development of excessive coronary atherosclerosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1967; 99:155–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oliver MF, Boyd GS. Effect of bilateral ovariectomy on coronary artery disease and serum lipid levels. Lancet 1959;ii:690–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robinson RW, Higano N, Cohen WD. Increased incidence of coronary heart disease in women castrated prior to the menopause. Arch Intern Med 1959;104:908–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ask-Upmark E. Life and death without ovaries. Acta Med Scand 1962;172:129–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johansson BW, Kaij L, Kullander S, Lenner H-C, Svanberg L, Astedt B. On some late effects of bilateral oophorectomy in the age range 15–30 years. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1975;54:449–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Winkelstein W, Stichever MA, Lilienfield AM. Occurrence of pregnancy, abortion and artificial menopause among women with coronary artery disease. J Chron Dis 1958;7:273–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Oliver MF. Ischaemic heart disease in young women. Br Med J 1974;4:253–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Glendy RE, Levine SA, White PD. Coronary disease in youth: Comparison of 100 patients under 40 with 300 persons past 80. J Am Med Assoc 1937;109:1775–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Randall CL, Paloucek FP, Graham JB, Graham S. Causes of death in cases of preclimacteric menorrhagia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1964;88:880–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Furman RH. Are gonadal hormones (estrogens and androgens) of significance in the development of ischemic heart disease? Ann N Y Acad Sci 1968;149:822–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Heller RF, Jacobs HS. Coronary heart disease in relation to age, sex, and the menopause. Br Med J 1978;1:472–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alderson MR, Jackson SM. Long term follow-up of patients with menorrhagia treated by irradiation. Br J Radiol 1971;44:295–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Manchester JH, Herman MV, Gorlin R. Premenopausal castration and documented coronary atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol 1971;28:33–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kannel WB, Hjortland MC, McNamara PM, Gordon T. Menopause and the risk of cardiovascular disease: The Framingham study. Ann Intern Med 1976;85:447–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rosenberg L, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, Belanger C, Rothman KJ, Speizer FE. Early menopause and the risk of myocardial infarction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;139:47–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jacobsen BK, Nilssen S, Heuch I, Kvale G. Does age at natural menopause affect mortality from ischemic heart disease? J Clin Epidemiol 1997;50:475–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cooper GS, Ephross SA, Weinberg CR, Baird DD, Whelan EA, Sandler DP. Menstrual and reproductive risk factors for ischemic heart disease. Epidemiology 1999;10:255–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hu FB, Grodstein F, Hennekens CH, et al. Age at natural menopause and risk of cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1061–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Snowdon DA, Kane RL, Beeson WL, et al. Is early menopause a biological marker of health and aging? Am J Public Health 1989;79:709–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jacobsen BK, Knutsen SF, Fraser GE. Age at natural menopause and total mortality and mortality from ischemic heart disease: The Adventist Health Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1999;52:303–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fioretti F, Tavani A, Gallus S, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Menopause and risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction: An Italian case-control study and a review of the literature. Hum Reprod 2000;15:599–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Witteman JCM, Grobbee DE, Kok FJ, Hofinan A, Valkenburg HA. Increased risk of atherosclerosis in women after the menopause. Br Med J 1989;298:642–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Joakimsen O, Bonaa KH, Stensland-Bugge E, Jacobsen BK. Population-based study of age at menopause and ultrasound assessed carotid atherosclerosis: The Tromso Study. J Clin Epidemiol 2000;53:525–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    ďAgostino RB, Russell MW, Huse DM, et al. Primary and subsequent coronary risk appraisal: New results from the Framingham study. Am Heart J 2000; 39:272–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvonne T. van der Schouw

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations