This chapter begins with a short review of human limb development, and of the evolutionary process that causes flexor and extensor surfaces of upper and lower limbs to become transposed—thus, to face in opposite directions. It then discusses the composition and functional organization of the brachial plexus, refers to brachial plexus injuries, and comments on the cutaneous innervation of the upper extremities. A thorough description of the lumbosacral plexus and its branches appears in chapter 32, “Innervation of Lower Limbs.”
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