Order Hadromerida Topsent, 1894

  • John N. A. Hooper
  • Rob W. M. Van Soest


Hadromerida Topsent (Demospongiae), including Clavulina Vosmaer and Astromonaxonellida Dendy, contains 23 nominal families or subfamilies of which 13 families are recognised here (two allocated as incertae sedis). The order includes sponges with monaxonic megascleres (tylostyles, subtylostyles, oxeas or derivatives) producing radiate or subradiate skeletal arrangement, although this arrangement may be obvious only in the peripheral skeleton in some, often with scarce spongin and consequently firm, non-elastic consistency. Ectosomal spicules are often smaller than choanosomal ones, and where present these may form a prominent cortical skeleton. Microscleres may include various forms of euasters, spirasters, rhabds, microxeas and/or raphides, although many hadromerids lack microscleres altogether. Hadromerid sponges are known from all oceans at all depths.


Porifera Demospongiae Hadromerida Acanthochaetetidae Alectonidae Clionaidae Hemiasterellidae Placospongiidae Polymastiidae Sollasellidae Spirastrellidae Stylocordylidae Suberitidae Tethyidae Timeidae Trachycladidae 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • John N. A. Hooper
    • 1
  • Rob W. M. Van Soest
    • 2
  1. 1.Queensland MuseumSouth BrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Zoological MuseumUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamNetherlands

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