Advertisement

Sense of Community in Rural Communities

A Mixed Methodological Approach
  • Brian J. Bishop
  • Sheridan J. Coakes
  • Pamela N. D’Rozario
Part of the The Plenum Series in Social/Clinical Psychology book series (SSSC)

Abstract

Psychological sense of community (SOC) was proposed to be the central aspect of community psychology by Sarason (1974). At the Society for Community Research and Action conference at Yale in 1999, Sarason was asked by Bob Newbrough why he had formulated the concept of SOC. He stated that as a child during the depression he experienced the terror of being at the point of having no physical and emotional support. Sustained experiences of this kind then form the basis of alienation that individuals and groups in our societies experience. Sarason argued that this was a profound experience and is a considerable risk factor for psychological and social problems. Understanding SOC, thus, is an essential aspect of community psychology.

Keywords

Rural Community Telephone Survey Community Psychology Moral Community Psychological Sense 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arbuckle, J. L. (1996). Amos user’s guide: Version 3.6. Chicago: SmallWaters Corporation.Google Scholar
  2. Bachrach, K. M., & Zautra, A. J. (1985). Coping with a community stressor: The threat of a hazardous waste facility. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 26, 127–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barker, R. (1968). Ecological psychology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Brim, J. A. (1974). Social network correlates of avowed happiness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 158, 432–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishop, B. J., & Syme, G. J. (1995). The Social costs and benefits of urban consolidation: A time budget/contingent valuation approach. Journal of Economic Psychology, 16, 223–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bishop, B. J., & Syme, G. J. (1996). Social change in rural settings: Lessons for community change agents. In D. R. Thomas & A. Veno (Eds.), Community Psychology and social change: Australian and New Zealand perspectives (pp. 157–181). Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  7. Brodsky, A. E., O’Campo, P. J., & Aronson, R. E. (1999). PSOC in community context: Multi-level correlates of a measure of psychological sense of community in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 659–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buckner, J. C. (1988). The development of an instrument of measure neighborhood cohesion. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 771–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chavis, D., Hogge, J., McMillan, D., & Wandersman, A. (1986). Sense of community through Brunswik’s lens: A first look. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chavis, D. M., & Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of community in the urban environment: A catalyst for participation and community development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 55–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chipuer, H. M. (2001). Dyadic attachments and community connectedness: Links with youth’s loneliness experiences. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 429–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chipuer, H. M., & Pretty, G. M. H. (1999). A review of the sense of community index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 643–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coakes, S. J. (1995). Participation of women in rural communities: The influence of social structural and contextual factors. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Curtin University, Perth.Google Scholar
  14. Coakes, S. J., & Bishop, B. J. (1998). Where do I fit in? Factors influencing women’s participation in rural communities. Community, Work & Family, 1, 249–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and the research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Davidson, W. B., & Cotter, P. R. (1986). Measurement of sense of community within the sphere of city. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16, 608–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davidson, W. B., & Cotter, P. R. (1989). Sense of community and political participation. Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 119–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davidson, W. B., & Cotter, P. R. (1993). Psychological sense of community and support for public school taxes. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Denzin, N. K. (1978). The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  20. Doolittle, R. J., & MacDonald, D. (1978). Communication and a sense of community in a metropolitan neighborhood: A factor analytic examination. Communication Quarterly, 26, 2–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Girgerenzer, G., Swijtink, Z., Porter, T., Daston, L., Beaty, J., &, Kruger, L. (1989). The empire of chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Glynn, T. J. (1986). Neighborhood and sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heller, K. (1989). The return to community. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria verses new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kelly, G. (1996). Sense of community in two communities of elderly people. Unpublished thesis, Curtin University, Perth.Google Scholar
  26. Johnson, M. A., & Mullins, P. (1990). Moral communities: Religious and secular. Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kirkpatrick, F. G. (1986). Community: A trinity of models. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Lounsbury, J. W., & DeNeui (1996). Collegiate psychological sense of community in relation to size of college/university and extroversion. Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 381–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McMillan, D. W. (1996). Sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 315–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 6–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Mitchell, C. M., & Beals, J. (1997). The structure and positive behavior among American adolescents: Gender and community differences. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 257–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pepper S. C. (1942). World hypotheses. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  34. Newbrough, J. R. (1995). Toward community: A third position. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 9–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pargament, K. I. (1983). The psychological climate of religious congregations. American Journal of Community Psychology, 77, 351–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pretty, G. M. (1990). Relating psychological sense of community to social climate characteristics. Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pretty, G. M. H. & McCarthy, M. (1991). Exploring psychological sense of community among women and men of the corporation. Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 351–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pretty, G. M. H., Conroy, C. Dugay, J., Fowler, K. & Williams, D. (1996). Sense of community and its relevance to adolescents of all ages. Journal of Community, 24, 365–379.Google Scholar
  39. Richards, L. (2000). Using NVivo in qualitative research. Bundoora, Vic.: QSR International.Google Scholar
  40. Royal, M. A., & Rossi, R. J. (1996). Individual-level correlates of sense of community: Findings from workplace and school. Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 395–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sarason, S. B. (1973). Jewishness, blackishness, and the nature-nurture controversy. American Psychologist, 28, 962–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sarason, S. B. (1974). The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  43. Sarason, S. B. (2000). Barometers of community change: Personal reflections. In J. Rappaport and E. Seidman (Eds.), Handbook of community psychology. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  44. Schumcker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (1996). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Tönnies, F. (1957). Community and society (C. P. Loomis, Trans.). New York: Harper.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian J. Bishop
    • 1
  • Sheridan J. Coakes
  • Pamela N. D’Rozario
  1. 1.Curtin UniversityAustralia

Personalised recommendations