Advertisement

Consequences and Assessment of Human Vestibular Failure

Implications for Postural Control
  • James G. Colebatch
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 508)

Abstract

Labyrinthine afferents respond to both angular velocity (semicircular canals) and linear acceleration (otoliths), including gravity. Given their response to gravity, the otoliths are likely to have an important role in the postural functions of the vestibular apparatus. Unilateral vestibular ablation has dramatic effects on posture in many animals, but less so in primates. Nevertheless, bilateral vestibular lesions lead to disabling symptoms in man related to disturbed ocular and postural control and impaired perception of slopes and accelerations. While seimicircular canal function can be assessed through its effects on vestibular ocular reflexes, assessment of otolith function in man has traditionally been much more difficult. Recent definition of a short latency vestibulocollic reflex, activated by sound and appearing to arise from the saccule, shows promise as a new method of noninvasive assessment of otolith function.

Keywords

Semicircular Canal Vestibular Nucleus Linear Acceleration Vestibular Function Experimental Brain Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brodai A., 1981, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 470–488.Google Scholar
  2. Cairns, H., and Brain, W. R., 1933, Aural vertigo: treatment by division of the eighth nerve. Lancet i 946–952.Google Scholar
  3. Camis, M., 1930, The Physiology of the Vestibular Apparatus, Translated by Creed, R.S., Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 47–68.Google Scholar
  4. Colebatch, J. G., Halmagyi, G. M., and Skuse, N. F., 1994, Myogenic potentials generated by a click-evoked vestibulocollic reflex, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 57, 190–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colebatch, J. G. and Rothwell, J. C., 1993, Vestibular-evoked EMG responses in human neck muscles, Journal of Physiology, 473, 18P.Google Scholar
  6. Cremer, P. D., Halmagyi, G. M., Aw, S. T., Curthoys, I. S., McGarvie, L. A., Todd, M. J., Black, R. A., and Hannigan, I. P., 1998, Semicircular canal plane head impulses detect absent function of individual semicircular canals, Brain, 121, 699–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dow, R. S., 1938, The effects of unilateral and bilateral labyrinthectomy in monkey, baboon and chimpanzee, American Journal of Physiology, 121, 392–399.Google Scholar
  8. Fernandez C., Goldberg J. M., and Abend, W. K., 1972, Responses to static tilts of peripheral neurons innervating otolith organs of the squirrel monkey, Journal of Neurophysiology, 35, 978–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fetter, M., 2000, Assessing vestibular function: which tests, when? Experimental Brain Research, 247, 335–342.Google Scholar
  10. Gresty, M., 1987, Stability of the head: studies in normal subjects and in patients with labyrinthine disease, head tremor, and dystonia, Movement Disorders, 2, 165–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guitton, D, Kearney, R. E., Werely, N., and Peterson, B. W., 1986, Visual, vestibular and voluntary contributions to human head stabilisation, Experimental Brain Research, 64, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Halmagyi, G. M., and Colebatch, J. G., 1995, Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in the stemomastoid muscle are not of lateral canal origin, Acta Oto-Laryngologica, Supplement, 520, 1–3.Google Scholar
  13. Halmagyi, G. M., and Curthoys, I. S., 1988, A clinical sign of canal paresis, Archives of Neurology, 45, 737–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Halmagyi, G. M., and Curthoys, 1. S., 1999, Clinical testing of otolith function, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 871, 195–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Halmagyi, G. M., Curthoys, I. S., and Dai, M. J., 1990, Diagnosis of unilateral otolith hypofunction, Neurologic Clinics, 8, 313–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Halmagyi G. M., Yavor R. A., and Colebatch J. G., 1995, Tapping the head activates the vestibular system: a new use for the clinical tendon hammer, Neurology, 45, 1927–1929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Less, K., 1996, Vestibulotoxic drugs and other causes of acquired bilateral peripheral vestibulopathy, in: Disorders of the Vestibular System, R.W. Baloh, G.M. Halmagyi, eds., Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 360–373.Google Scholar
  18. J.C., 1952, Living without a balancing mechanism, New England Journal of Medicine, 246, 458–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kushiro, K., Zakir, M., Ogawa, Y., Sato, H., and Uchino, Y., 1999, Saccular and utricular inputs to stemocleidomasotid motoneurons of decerebrate cats, Experimental Brain Research, 126, 410–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Magnus, R., 1926, Some results of studies on the physiology of posture, Lancet ii: 531–536, 585–588.Google Scholar
  21. Martin, J.P., 1967, The Basal Ganglia and Posture, Pitman, London, pp. 36–51.Google Scholar
  22. McCue, M. P., and Guinan, J. J. Jnr, 1995, Spontaneous activity and frequency selectivity of acoustically responsive vestibular afferents in the cat, Journal of Neurophysiology, 74, 1563–1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Melvill Jones G., and Watt, D. G. D., 1971, Muscular control of landing from unexpected falls in man, Journal of Physiology, 219, 729–737.Google Scholar
  24. Murofushi, T., Curthoys, I. S., Topple, A. N., Colebatch, J. G., and Halmagyi, G. M., 1995, Responses of guinea pig primary vestibular neurons to clicks, Experimental Brain Research, 103, 174–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Prochazka, A., Proprioceptive feedback and movement regulation, in: Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems, Handbook of Physiology, Section 12, L.B. Rowell, J.T. Shepherd, eds, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 89–217.Google Scholar
  26. Roberts, T. D. M., 1995, Understanding Balance, Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 94–174.Google Scholar
  27. Sherrington, C. S., 1947, The Integrative Action of the Nervous System, 2nd ed., Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 335–344.Google Scholar
  28. Suzuki, J. I., and Cohen, B., 1964, Head, eye, body and limb movements from semicircular canal nerves, Experimental Brain Research, 10, 393–405.Google Scholar
  29. Uchino, Y., Sato, H., Sasaki, M., Imagawa, M., Ikegami, H., Isu, N., and Graf, W., 1997, Sacculocollic reflex arcs in cats, Journal of Neurophysiology, 77, 3003–3012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Watson, S. R. D., and Colebatch, J. G., 1998, Vestibulocollic reflexes evoked by galvanic stimulation in man, Journal of Physiology, 513, 587–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Watt, D. G. D., 1976, Responses of cats to sudden falls: an otolith-originating reflex assisting landing, Journal of Neurophysiology, 39, 257–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Welgampola, M. S., and Colebatch, J. G., 2001, Vestibulospinal reflexes: quantitative effects of sensory feedback and postural task, Experimental Brain Research, 139, 345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilson, V. J., and Peterson, B. W., 1978, Peripheral and central substrates of vestibulospinal reflexes, Physiological Reviews, 58, 80–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilson, V.J., and Schor, R.H., 1999, The neural substrate of the vestibulocollic reflex: what needs to be learned, Experimental Brain Research, 129, 483–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilson, V.J., and Yoshida, M., 1969, Comparison of effects of stimulation of Deiter’s nucleus and medial longitudinal fasciculus on neck, neck, forelimb, and hindlimb motoneurons, Journal of Neurophysiology, 32, 743–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • James G. Colebatch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology and Clinical SchoolPrince of Wales HospitalSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations