Do Newts Avoid Conspecific Alarm Substances: The Predation Hypothesis Revisited
Predator detection and avoidance are important for prey survival. Upon noticing a predator, most prey will decrease activity, move into refugia, or flee (Lima, 1998). Many prey rely on visual cues to reveal threats, but dense vegetation and turbidity often make vision unreliable in aquatic environments (Kats and Dill, 1998). Therefore, aquatic prey may benefit more from using chemical cues than visual cues to detect predators (Dodson et al., 1994). Numerous studies have demonstrated that aquatic animals use their chemical senses to identify predators and release antipredatory behaviors (Kats and Dill, 1998). In fact, Stauffer and Semlitsch (1993) demonstrated that predators’ chemical cues amplified antipredatory behaviors in Rana lessonae and Rana esculenta tadpoles, but visual cues did not.
KeywordsCellulose Toxicity Cage Sponge Nylon
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