Effect of Processing on Deoxynivalenol and other Trichothecenes

  • Dionisia M. Trigo-Stockli
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 504)


Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and other trichothecene toxins may contaminate crops as weather conditions during the growing season sometimes favor the growth and toxin production by theFusariumfungus. Several processing procedures for the reduction of DON in contaminated wheat and corn have been studied. Although total elimination of toxin is not usually possible, processing methods such as cleaning and milling can reduce toxin to acceptable levels. In addition, more countries have guidelines or advisory levels to follow for the utilization of DON-contaminated grains such as wheat. In recent years, a few studies on grain processing have been conducted, however, there is a continuing effort to find a more effective method or a combination of methods for the reduction of DON in grains and grain products.


Sodium Bisulfite Fusarium Mycotoxin Calcium Hypochlorite Feed Refusal Korean Wheat 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Accerbi, M., Rinaldi, V.E.A., and Ng, P.K.W., 1999, Utilization of highly deoxynivalenol-contaminated wheat via extrusion processingJ. Food Prot.62:1485–1487.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, G.A., and Richard, J.L., 1996, Influence of processing onFusariummycotoxins in contaminated grains,Food Technol.235–238.Google Scholar
  3. Charley, L.L., and Prelusky, D.B., 1994, Decontamination ofFusariummycotoxins, InMycotoxins in Grain Compounds other than Aflatoxin, J.D. Miller and H.L. Trenholm, eds., Eagan Press, St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  4. Collins, G.J. and Rosen, J.D., 1981, Distribution of T-2 toxin in wet-milled corn productsJ. Food Sci.46:877–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. El Banna, A.A., Lau, P.Y., and Scott, P.M, 1983, Fate of mycotoxins during processing of foodstuffs. II. Deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) during making of Egyptian breadJ. Food Prot.46:484–488.Google Scholar
  6. Lauren, D.R., and Ringrose, M.A., 1997, Determination of the fate of threeFusariummycotoxins through wet-milling of maize using an improved HPLC analytical technique,Food Add. Contam.14:435–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lee, U.S., Jong, H.S., Tanaka, T., Oh, Y.J., Cho, C.M., and Ueno, Y., 1987, Effect of milling on decontamination ofFusariummycotoxins nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone in Korean wheat,J Agric. Food Chem.35:126–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee, U-S., Lee, M-Y., Park, W-Y., and Ueno, Y., 1992. Decontamination ofFusariummycotoxins, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone in barley by the polishing process,Mycotoxin Res.8:31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Marasas, W.F.O., and Nelson, P.E., 1987MycotoxicologyThe Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.Google Scholar
  10. Niera, M.S., Pacin, A.M., Martinez, E.J., Molto, G., and Resnik, S.L., 1997, The effects of bakery processing on natural deoxynivalenol contaminationInt. J. Food Microbio!.37: 21–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nowicki, T.W., Gaba, D.G., Dexter, J.E., Matsuo, R.R., and Clear, R.M., 1988, Retention of theFusariummycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat during processing and cooking of spaghetti and noodles,J Cereal Sci.8:189–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Osweiler, G., 1986, Occurrence and clinical manifestations of trichothecene toxicosis and zearalenone toxicoses, InDiagnosis of MycotoxicosisJ.L. Richard and J.R. Thurston, eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston.Google Scholar
  13. Patey, A.L., and Gilbert, J., 1989, Fate of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals during food processing and methods for their detoxification, in:Fusarium: Mycotoxins Taxonomy and PathogenecityJ. Chelkowski ed, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  14. Scott, P.M., Kanhere, S.R., Lau, P.Y., Dexter, J.E., and Greenhalgh, R., 1983, Effects of experimental flour milling and breadbaking on retention of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in hard red spring wheatCereal Chem.60:421–424.Google Scholar
  15. Scott, P.M., 1991, Possibilities of reduction or elimination of mycotoxins present in cereal grains, InCereal Grain Mycotoxins Fungi and Quality in Drying and StorageJ. Chelkowski, ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  16. Scott, P.M., Kanhere, S.R., Dexter, J.E., Brennan, P.W., Trenholm, H.L., 1984, Distribution of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) during the milling of naturally contaminated hard red spring wheat and its fate in baked productsFood.Addit. Contam.1:313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Seitz, L.M., Eustace, W.D., Mohr, H.E., Shogren, M.D., and Yamazaki, W.T., 1986, Cleaning, milling, and baking tests with hard red winter wheat containing deoxynivalenolCereal Chem.63:146–150.Google Scholar
  18. Seitz, L.M., Yamazaki, W.T., Clements, R.L., Mohr, H.E., and Andrews, L., 1985, Distribution of deoxynivalenol in soft wheat mill streamsCereal Chem.62:467–469.Google Scholar
  19. Stain, H.M., Osweiler, G.D., Martin, P., Domoto, M., Debey, B, 1987, Thermal detoxification of trichothecene contaminated commodities, in: Biodeterioration Research I, G.C. Llewellyn and C.E. O’Rear, eds, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Tanaka, T, Hasegawa, A., Yamamoto, Y.M., and Ueno, Y., 1986, Residues ofFusariummycotoxins, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone, in wheat and processed food after milling and baking,J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jpn.27:653–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Trenholm, H.L., Charmley, L.L., Prelusky, D.B., Warner, R.M., 1991, Two physical methods for the decontamination of four cereals contaminated with deoxynivalenol and zearalenoneJ. Agric. Food Chem.39:356–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Trenholm, H.L., Charmley, L.L., Prelusky, D.B., Warner, R.M., 1992, Washing procedures using water or sodium carbonate solutions for the decontamination of three cereals contaminated with deoxynivalenol and zearalenoneJ Agric. Food Chem.40:2147–2151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Trigo-Stockli, D.M., Deyoe, C.W., Satumbaga, R.F., and Pedersen, J.R., 1996, Distribution of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in milled fractions of wheatCereal Chem73:388–391.Google Scholar
  24. Trigo-Stockli, D.M., Sanchez-Marinez, R.I., Cortez-Rocha, M.O., and Pedersen, J.R., 1998, Comparison of the distribution and occurrence ofFusarium graminearumand deoxynivalenol in hard red winter wheat for 1993–1996,Cereal Chem. 75:841–846. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Trigo-Stockli, D.M., Obaldo, L.G., Dominy, W.G., and Behnke, K.C., 2000, Utilization of deoxynivalenol-contaminated hard red winter wheat for shrimp feeds, J.World Aquaculture Soc.31:247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Van Egmond, H.P., 1989, Current situation on regulations for mycotoxins. Overview of tolerances and status of standard methods of sampling and analysisFood Addit. Contam.6:139–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wolf-Hall. C.E., 1995, Characterization of deoxynivalenol producing mold, detection of deoxynivalenol and effects of heat on mycotoxins, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  28. Young, J.C., 1986, Reduction in levels of deoxynivalenol in contaminated corn by chemical and physical treatmentJ. Agric. Food Chem.34:465–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Young, J.C., Fulcher, R.G., Hayhoe, J.H., Scott, P.M., and Dexter, J.E., 1984, Effect of milling and baking on deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) content of eastern Canadian wheatsJ. Agric. Food Chem.32:659–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Young, J.C., Trenholm, H.L., Friend, D.W., and Prelusky, D.B., 1987, Detoxification of deoxynivalenol with sodium bisulfite, and evaluation of the effects when pure mycotoxin or contaminated corn was treated and given to pigs, JAgric. Food Chem.35:259–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dionisia M. Trigo-Stockli
    • 1
  1. 1.Kansas State University Dept. of Grain Science & Industry Manhattan

Personalised recommendations