Advertisement

Effect of Processing on Aflatoxin

  • Douglas L. Park
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 504)

Abstract

Naturally occurring toxicant contamination of foods with mycotoxins is unavoidable and unpredictable and poses a unique challenge to food safety. Aflatoxins are toxic mold metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Primary commodities susceptible to aflatoxin contamination include corn, peanuts and cottonseed and animal-derived foods such as milk when the animal is fed aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Risks associated with aflatoxin-contaminated foods can be reduced through the use of specific processing and decontamination procedures. Factors, which influence the effectiveness of a specific process or procedure, include the chemical stability of the mycotoxin(s), nature of the process, type and interaction with the food/feed matrix and interaction with multiple mycotoxins if present. Practical decontamination procedures must: 1) inactivate, destroy, or remove the toxin, 2) not produce or leave toxic residues in the food/feed, 3) retain the nutritive value of the food/feed, 4) not alter the acceptability or the technological properties of the product, and, if possible, 5) destroy fungal spores. For aflatoxins, multiple processing and/or decontamination schemes have been successful in reducing aflatoxin concentrations to acceptable levels. Physical cleaning and separation procedures, where the mold-damaged kernel/seed/nut is removed from the intact commodity, can result in 40-80% reduction in aflatoxins levels. Processes such as dry and wet milling result in the distribution of aflatoxin residues into less utilized fractions of the commodity. The ammoniation of aflatoxin-contaminated commodities has altered the concentrations as well as toxic and carcinogenic effects of aflatoxin by greater than 99%. Nonbiological materials such as selected anticaking agents covalently bind aflatoxins from aqueous suspensions, diminish aflatoxin uptake by animals, prevent acute aflatoxicosis, and decrease aflatoxin residues in milk. Ultimately, the best processing or decontamination process is one that is approved by regulatory agencies, cost-effective, and reduces the mycotoxin concentration to acceptable levels.

Keywords

Aflatoxin Contamination Aflatoxin Level Decontamination Procedure Aflatoxin Concentration Fumonisin Contamination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achroder, H.W., Boller, R. A., and H. Hein, Jr., 1986, Reduction in aflatoxin contamination of rice by milling procedures. Cereal Chem. 45:574.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, G.A., and Anderson, R.A., 1978, Distribution of aflatoxin and/or zearalenone in wet-milled corn products: A review. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26:1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burgos-Hernandez, A., 1998, Evaluation of chemical treatments and intrinsic factors that affect the mutagenic potential of aflatoxin B1-contaminated corn. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States. (Ph.D. dissertation)Google Scholar
  4. Chu, F.S., Chang, C.C., Ashoor, S.H., and Prentice N., 1975, Stability of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in brewing. Applied Microbiol 29:313.Google Scholar
  5. Christensen, C.M., Mirocha, C.I., Meronuck, R.A., 1977, Mold, mycotoxin and mycotoxicoses. In: Agricultural Experiment Station, Report 142, St. Paul; University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  6. Cole, R.J., 1989, Technology of aflatoxin decontamination. In: S. Natori, K. Hashimoto, Y. Ueno, eds. Mycotoxins and Pycotoxins ‘88. Amsterdam; Elsevier Scientific, p 177.Google Scholar
  7. Conway, H.F., Anderson, R.A., and Bagley, E.B., 1978, Detoxification of aflatoxin-contaminated corn by roasting. Cereal Chem. 55:115.Google Scholar
  8. Dam, R.S., Tam, S.W., and Satterlee, L.D., 1977, Destruction of a.flatoxins during fermentation and byproduct isolation from artificially contaminated grains. Cereal Chem. 54:705.Google Scholar
  9. Decker, W.J., 1980, Activated charcoal absorbs aflatoxin B1. Vet Human Toxicol 22:388.Google Scholar
  10. Dickens, W.J., and Whitaker, T.B., 1975, Efficacy of electronic color sorting and hand picking to remove aflatoxin contaminated kernels from commercial lots of shelled peanuts. Peanut Sci. 2:45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feuell, A.J., 1966, Aflatoxin in groundnuts. IX. Problems of detoxification. Trop Sci. 8:61.Google Scholar
  12. Hagler, W.M., Jr, Hutchings, J.E., and Hamilton, P.B., 1982, Destruction of aflatoxin in corn with sodium bisulfate. J. Food Prot 45:1287.Google Scholar
  13. Henry, S.H., Bosch, F.X., Troxell, T.C. and Bolger, P.M., 1999, Reducing liver cancer — Global control of aflatoxin. Science 286:2453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Levi, C.P., 1980, Mycotoxins in coffee. J. AOAC 63:1282.Google Scholar
  15. Levi, C.P., Ternk, H.L., and Yeransianm, J.A., 1975, Investigations of mycotoxins relative to coffee. Colloq Int. Chim. Cafes (CR) 7:287.Google Scholar
  16. Lopez-Garcia, R. and Park, D.L., 1998, Effectiveness of post-harvest procedures in management of mycotoxin hazards In. Mycotoxins in Agriculture and Food Safety, D. Bhatnagar and S. Sinha, eds, New York, Marcel Dekker, pp. 407–433.Google Scholar
  17. Lopez-Garcia, R., 1998, Aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1co-contamination: Interactive effects, possible mechanisms of toxicity, and decontamination procedures. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States. (Ph.D. dissertation).Google Scholar
  18. Lopez-Garcia, R., Park, D.L. and Phillips, T.D., 1999, Integrated mycotoxin management systems, Food, Nutrition and Agriculture FAO 23:38Google Scholar
  19. Luter, L., Wyslouzil, W., and Kashyap, S.C., 1982, The destruction of aflatoxins in peanuts by microwave roasting. Can Inst. Food Sci. Technol. 1 15:236.Google Scholar
  20. Machen, M.D., Clement, B.A., Shepherd, E.C., San, A.B., Pettit, E.W., and Phillips, T.D., 1988, Sorption of aflatoxins from peanut oil by aluminosilicates. Toxicologist 8:265.Google Scholar
  21. Park, D.L., 1993, Controlling aflatoxin in food and feed. Food Technol. 47: 92.Google Scholar
  22. Park, D.L., Lee, L.S., Price, R.L., and Pohland, A.E., 1988, Review of decontamination of aflatoxin by ammoniation: Current status and regulation. J. AOAC 71:685.Google Scholar
  23. Park, D.L. and Liang, B., 1993, Perspectives on aflatoxin control for human food and animal feed. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 4:334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Park, D.L., Lopez-Garcia, R., Trujillo-Preciado, S. and Price, R.L., 1996, Reduction of risks associated with fumonisin contamination in corn. In Fumonisins in Food, L. S., Jackson, J.W. DeVries and L.B. Bullerman, eds., Plerum Press, New York, pp.335–344.Google Scholar
  25. Park, D.L., and Price, W.D., 2001, Reduction of aflatoxin hazards using ammoniation. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (In Press).Google Scholar
  26. Park, D.L. and Staloff, L., 1989, Aflatoxin control — How a regulatory agency managed risk from an unavoidable natural toxicant in food and feed. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 9:109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Park, D.L., Njapau, H. and Boutrif, E., 1999, Minimizing risk posed by mycotoxins utilizing the HACCP concept. Food,Nutrition and Agriculture,FAO, 23:49.Google Scholar
  28. Peers, F.G., and Linsell, C.A. 1975, Aflatoxin contamination and its heat stability in Indian cooking oils. Trop Sci. 17:229.Google Scholar
  29. Phillips, T.D., Clement, B.A., and Park, D.L., 1994, Approaches to reduction of aflatoxins in foods and feeds. In: The Toxicology of Aflatoxins-Human Health, Veterinary and Agricultural Significance, D.L. Eaton, J.D. Groopman, eds., San Diego; Academic Press. p 383.Google Scholar
  30. Price, R.L., and Jorgensen, K.V., 1985, Effects of processing on aflatoxin levels and on mutagenic potential of tortillas made from naturally contaminated corn. J. Food Sci. 50:347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Scott, P.M., 1984, Effects of food processing on mycotoxins. J. Food Prot. 47: 489.Google Scholar
  32. Stoloff, L., 1982, Mycotoxins, potential environmental carcinogens. In Carcinogens and Mutagens in the Environment, H.F. Stich, ed., Boca Raton: CRC Press, p 97.Google Scholar
  33. Trujillo, S., 1997, Reduction and management of risks associated with aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in corn, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (Ph.D. dissertation).Google Scholar
  34. Ulloa Sosa, M. and Herrea, T., 1970, Persistencia de las aflatoxinas durante la fermentacion del pozol. Rev. Lat Am Microbiol 12:19.Google Scholar
  35. Ulloa Sosa, M., and Shroeder, H.W., 1969, Note on aflatoxin decomposition in the process of making tortillas from corn. Cereal Chem 46:397.Google Scholar
  36. Wood, G.M., Cooper, S.J. and Chapman, W.B., 1982, Problems associated with laboratory simulation of effects of food processes on mycotoxins. Proceedings of V. Int. IUPAC Symp Mycotoxins, Vienna, Austria, p 142.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas L. Park
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Natural Products Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Food and Drug Administration

Personalised recommendations