Boron Deficiency in Cotton Grown on Calcareous Soils of Pakistan
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Pakistan is grown in irrigated cotton-wheat system on ~3 Mha alkaline-calcareous, alluvial soils. Despite enhanced use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisers, however, cotton productivity has rather stagnated or declined. Considering soils properties, boron (B) mining with cropping, prevalence of B deficiency in other crops (Rashid et al., 1994, Rashid et al., 1997) and high sensitivity of cotton to B deficiency (Shorrocks, 1992), B deficiency was also suspected in this crop. Therefore, we monitored B status and mapped spatial variability of B in cotton plants and associated soils across the major cotton areas of Pakistan.
KeywordsBiomass Zinc Clay Toxicity Phosphorus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bingham, F.T., 1982. Boron, In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties (A.L. Page, ed.), American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 431–448.Google Scholar
- Kausar, M.A., Tahir, M., and Hamid, A., 1990, Comparison of three methods for the estimation of soil available boron for maize. Pakistan J. Sci. Ind. Res. 33: 221–224.Google Scholar
- Plank, CO., 1979, Plant Analysis Handbook for Georgia. Univ. of Georgia Coop. Ext. Bull. 739.Google Scholar
- Rashid, A., and Rafique, E., 2001, Boron deficiency in cotton grown in calcareous soils of Pakistan. II. Correction and foliar analysis diagnostic criterion. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Rashid, A., Rafique, E., and Bughio, N., 1997, Micronutrient deficiencies in rainfed calcareous soils of Pakistan. III. Boron nutrition of sorghum. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 28: 444–454.Google Scholar
- Reuter D.J., 1986, Temperature and sub-tropical crops, In Plant Analysis - An Interpretation Manual (D.J. Reuter and J.B. Robinson, eds.), Inkata Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 38–99.Google Scholar
- Reuter, D.J., Edwards, D.G., and Wilhelm, N.S., 1997, Temperate and tropical crops, In Plant Analysis: An Interpretation Manual, Second ed. (D.J. Reuter and J.B. Robinson, eds.), CSIRO Publishing, Australia, pp. 81–284.Google Scholar
- Shorrocks, V.M., 1992, Boron - A global appraisal of the occurrence of boron deficiency. In Proc. Int. Symp. Role of Sulphur, Magnesium, and Micronutrients in Balanced Plant Nutrition (Sam Portch, ed.), The Sulphur Institute, Washington DC, USA, pp. 39–53.Google Scholar
- Sillanpaa, M, 1982, Micronutrients and Nutrient Status of Soils: A Global Study. FAO Soil Bull. No. 48, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.Google Scholar
- Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., Beaton, J.D., and Havlin, J.L., 1993, Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, 5th ed. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY.Google Scholar