Recent Advances in the Development of Cell Culture Models for the Blood-Brain- and Blood-CSF-Barrier
Two cellular barriers effectively protect the mammalian brain from passive entrance of ions and hydrophilic compounds circulating in the bloodstream. First, the vascular capillaries of the brain are almost entirely lined by unique endothelial cells that build up the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In those very limited regions of the brain, where the endothelial cells do not provide a sufficiently tight barrier — namely in certain parts of the ventricular system, the choroid plexus — an underlying sheet of epithelial cells serves to separate blood from cerebrospinal fluid and thereby forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB). The ability of both cell types to separate two compartments of different chemical composition arises from the formation of very tight intercellular junctions (tight junctions). These cell-cell contacts prevent diffusive permeation of blood derived compounds along the intercellular cleft between adjacent cells into the CNS or vice versa.
KeywordsVascular Endothelium Growth Factor Tight Junction Barrier Property Choroid Plexus Lysophosphatidic Acid
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