Viral meningitis and encephalitis are not rare diseases. In adults in Europe and the USA, incidences from 11 to 26 per 100,000 population per annum have been reported for viral meningitis and 3 to 7 per 100,000 for viral encephalitis (Ponka and Pettersson, 1982; Beghi et al.,1984). Encephalitis is more common in children, a 20 year survey in Finland determined a peak incidence of 17 per 100,000 child years in the second year of life (Koskiniemi et al.,1991). In one study of an endemic area of India, the incidence of Japanese encephalitis cases was 15 per 10,000 children aged 5–9 years with total population morbidity rates estimated at 0.30 to 1.5 per 100,000 (Gajanana et al.,1995; Reuben and Gajanana, 1997). In addition to meningitis and encephalitis, viruses are associated with subacute and chronic demyelinating disease for example measles virus and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis; with dementia, for example AIDS dementia; with hydrocephalus, for example mumps virus in children; with neurodegenerative disease, for example spongiform degeneration with murine (Cas-Br-E) retroviruses; with neuro-developmental abnormalities, for example rubella virus or feline panleukopenia virus and cerebellar hypoplasia and possibly with a number of neurological diseases of unknown aetiology such as multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease or some Parkinsonian conditions. For reviews see Johnson, 1998; Fazakerley, 2001.
KeywordsOlfactory Bulb Rabies Virus Measle Virus Japanese Encephalitis Olfactory Nerve
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