Brain Iron Uptake and Transport in Animal Model of Iron Deficiency, Tardive Dyskinesia and Neurodegenerative Diseases

  • M. B. H. Youdim
  • K. L. Leenders
  • D. Ben-Shachar


Abnormality of iron either its increase or decrease in the tissue is associated with some of the most devastating diseases in human. Until very recently very little attention was paid to iron metabolism in the brain. Reduction in brain iron is thought to cause cognitive and learning impairment in infants and young children (Youdim et al.,1989) (Yehuda and Youdim, 1989; Youdim and Yehuda, 2000) Indeed, in animal studies in which nutritionally iron deficiency was induced in young rats (28–80 day old) brain iron was reduced by 30–40%. These animals exhibit learning deficits in Y-water maze and Morris water tank. Iron supplementation restored iron levels cognitive and behavioral deficits to normal. In contrast, if iron deficiency is induced in newborn rats (10 day old) iron supplementation could not reverse brain iron and the learning deficits even after long-term treatment.


Iron Deficiency Tardive Dyskinesia Lipoic Acid Liver Iron Atypical Antipsychotic Drug 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. B. H. Youdim
    • 2
  • K. L. Leenders
    • 3
  • D. Ben-Shachar
    • 1
  1. 1.Medicine, Eve Topf and NPF Centers for Neurodegenerative Diseases ResearchIsrael
  2. 2.Laboratory of Psychobiology, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineTechnion and Rambam Medical CenterHaifaIsrael
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyUniversity of GroningenGroningenNetherlands

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