Gender Differences in Energy Intake of Newborns

  • Marina K. Ito
  • Juliana Da Cunha
  • Teresa H. M. Da Costa
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 503)


Lipid is the major energy source for the breastfeeding newborn. It is well known that a number of factors influence the lipid composition of human milk.1 These include lactational period, maternal diet, duration of a feed, time of collection, feeding interval, gestational age, parity, maternal age and adiposity. In general, although boys are born bigger than girls and their growth curve maintain the difference, no report seems to indicate a relationship between breast milk lipid composition and the gender of the baby. In a single feed, the lipid content of the milk increases from fore to hindmilk, and, for our knowledge, sexual differences have not been documented.


  1. 1.
    R. G. Jensen. The lipids in human milk, Prog. Lipid Res. 35:53–92 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. G. Bligh, and W. J. Dyer, A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification, Can. J. Bio. Physiol. 37:911–917 (1959).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. G. Dewey,M. J. Heining, L. A. Nommsen, and B. Lonnerdal, Maternal versus infant factors related to breast milk intake and residual milk volume: the DARLING study, Pediatrics 87:829–837 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marina K. Ito
    • 1
  • Juliana Da Cunha
    • 2
  • Teresa H. M. Da Costa
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de NutriçãoUniversidade de BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil
  2. 2.Universidade CatólicaBrasíliaBrazil

Personalised recommendations