Advertisement

Physiology of the Exocrine Pancreas

  • John M. Howard
  • Walter Hess
Chapter

Abstract

Johann Conrad Brunner (1653–1727) (Figure 2.1), whom history would record as the first to resect a pancreas, was born in Diessenhofen, a small rural town in the Swiss canton of Thurgovia, on January 13, 1653, 11 years after Wirsüng’s discovery, and nine years after the birth of de Graaf. Like so many of the pancreatic pioneers, he studied medicine in Strasbourg, from 1669 to 1672, subsequently making extensive travels to the medical centers in Paris, London, Oxford, Amsterdam, and Leiden, before returning to Strasbourg where he graduated in 1675, aged 22.

Keywords

Pancreatic Duct Conditioned Reflex Nobel Prize Pancreatic Fistula Pancreatic Juice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. C. Brunner, 1683. Experimenta nova circa pancreas, accedit diatriba de lympha et genuino pancreatis usu [New experiments on the pancreas followed by a discussion on the lymph and the actual function of the pancreas]. Amsterdam: Wettstein.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. C. Brunner, 1689. De Experimentis circa Pancreas novis confirmatis. Miscellanea curiosa sive Ephemeridium medico-physicarum German. Acad. Imp. Leopold. Natur. Curios. Dec II, Annus VI, 1688 [On the newly confirmed experiments on the pancreas. Two hundred medico-physical diaries of the German Imperial Leopoldinian Academy of natural history. Year VI]. Nuremberg: Wolfgangus Mauritius Endtner.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. C. Zimmerman, 1945. Die erste Beschreibung von Symptomen des experimentellen Pankreas-Diabetes [The first description of symptoms of experimental pancreatic diabetes], Gesnerus 2:109.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. H. Major, 1931. Johann Conrad Brunner and his experiments on the pancreas, Ann. Med. Hist. 3:298.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. von Haller, 1757–1766. Elementa physiologiae corporis humani [Elements of the physiology of the human body], Volume VI, lib. XXII, §9. Lausanne/Berne.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. F. Blumenbach, 1787. Institutiones physiologicae [Teachings in physiology]. Padua.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    The Scientific Revolution, Westfall Catalogue,Scientific Community, Dr. Robert A. Hatch, University of Florida, “Johann-Jakob Wepfer” (August 2, 1999) http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/rhatch/SAM-V-Z.htm. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mannheimer Geschichtsblätter 1993. [Mannheim historical papers], 34:125–126.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. H. Behr, 1730. De pancreate ejusque liquore [On the pancreas and its juice]. Strasbourg.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. von Haller, 1747. Primae lineae physiologiae [Introduction to physiology]. Göttingen, p. 382.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Bordeu, 1751. Recherches anatomiques sur la position des glandes et sur leur action [Anatomical studies on the site of the glands and on their function]. Paris, p. 205.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. T. Sömmering, 1796. Von Baue des menschlichen Körpers. Fünften Theils, zweite Abteilung. Eingeweidelehre [On the frame of the human body. Part 5, section 2, Viscera]. Frankfurt a.M.: Varrentrapp and Wenner.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. M. A. Caldini, 1786. Institutiones anatomicae [Teachings in anatomy]. Venice.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. J. Plenck, 1794. Hydrologia corporis humani sive doctrina chemico-physiologica de humoribus in corpore humano contentis [The fluids of the human body or the chemico-physiologic doctrine of the fluids existing in the human body]. Vienna.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Bohn, 1686. 1710. De Chylificatione [On the formation of chyle], in: Dissertationes chymicophysicae [Chemical and physical dissertations] (J. Bohn). Leipzig: Thomas Fritsch Publisher.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. J. G. Marcel, 1815. Some experiments on the chemical nature of chyle with a few observations on chyme, Med. Surg. Trans. London 6:619–631.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. Schwann, 1830. Ueber die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur und im Wachstum der Tiere und Pflanzen (On the conformity in the structure and in growth of animals and plants]. Berlin.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Virchow, 1858. Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf physiologische und pathologische gewebelehre [Cellular pathology], 1st ed. Berlin: Hirschwald.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Gmelin, 1827–1828. Handbuch der theoretischen Chemie [Handbook of theoretical chemistry]. Berlin.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. J. Berzelius, 1830. Tierchemie [Chemistry of animals (biochemistry)], in: Lehrbuch der Chemie [Textbook of chemistry], Volume 2. Berlin.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. von Liebig, 1842. Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie [Organic chemistry as applied to physiology and pathology]. Giessen.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Tiedemann, and L. Gmelin, 1827. Verdauung nach Versuchen [Experimental studies of digestion]. Heidelberg: Groos.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Leuret, and J. L. Lassaigne, 1825. Recherches physiologiques et chemiques pour servir à l’histoire de la digestion [Physiologic and chemical investigations serving for the history of digestion]. Paris: Huzard.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. J. Bigsby, 1835. Observations, pathological and therapeutic on diseases of the pancreas, Edinb. Med. Surg. J 44:85–102.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. N. Eberle, 1834. Physiologie der Verdauung nach Versuchen auf natürlichem und künstlichen Wege [Physiology of digestion according to natural and artificial experiments]. Würzburg: Ettinger.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. E. Purkinje, and S. Pappenheim, 1838. Vorläufige Mitteilung aus einer Untersuchung über künstliche Verdauungsdrüsen [Preliminary communication from an examination on experimental digestive glands], Arch. Anat. Phys. wissensch. Med. 1:14.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Bouchardat, and M. Sandras, 1845. Des fonctions du pancréas et son influence dans la digestion des féculents [On the functions of the pancreas and its influence on the digestion of food], C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 20:956, 1055.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. G. Valentin, 1847. Lehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen [Textbook of Physiology of Man], Volume 1, 2nd ed. Braunschweig: Viewege, p. 356.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Bernard, 1843. Le suc gastrique et son role dans la nutrition [Gastric juice and its role in digestion]. Paris: Rignoux.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Foster, 1899. Claude Bernard. London: T. Fisher Unwin.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. Magendie, 1817. Précis élémentaire de physiologie [Elementary treatise on physiology]. Paris: Méquignon-Marvis.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. Bernard, 1849. Du suc pancréatique et de son rôle dans the phénomènes de la digestion [Pancreatic juice and its role in the phenomena of digestion], Mém. Soc. Biol 1:99.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Bernard, 1848. Sur les usages du suc pancréatique [On the function of pancreatic juice], Bull. Soc. Philom.,pp. 34–36.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Bernard, 1849. Recherches sur les usages du suc pancréatique dans la digestion [Research on the function of pancreatic juice in digestion], C. R. hébd. Soc. Biol. 28:249–253.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    C. Bernard, 1856. Mémoire sur le pancréas et sur le rôle du suc pancréatique dans les phénomènes digestifs, particulièrement dans la digestion des matières grasses neutres [Memoir on the pancreas and the role of pancreatic juice in digestive phenomena, in particular in the digestion of neutral fats]. Paris: Baillère, English translation, Henderson, J. (trans.). 1985. Memoir on the Pancreas. London/New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. 36a.
    C. Bernard, 1845. Recherches exéprimentales sur les phénomènes chimiques de la digestion [Experimental investigations on the chemical phenomena of digestion], C. R. hébd. Acad. Sci. 21:88–89.Google Scholar
  37. 36b.
    C. Bernard 1849. De l’assimilation du sucre de canne [On the assimilation of sugar-cane], C. R. hébd Soc. Biol. 1:114–115Google Scholar
  38. 36c.
    C. Bernard 1849. Remarques d’anatomie comparée sur le pancréas [Remarks on comparing the anatomy of the pancreas], C. R. hébd Soc. Biol. 1:117–119Google Scholar
  39. 36d.
    C. Bernard 1849. De l’écoulement du suc pancréatique et de la bile [On the flow of pancreatic juice and bile], C. R. hébd Soc. Biol. 1:171.Google Scholar
  40. 36e.
    C. Bernard 1849. Destruction du pancréas pendant la vie chez le chien [On destruction of the pancreas in the living dog], C. R. hébd Soc. Biol. 1:204.Google Scholar
  41. 36f.
    C. Bernard 1852. Pancreatic secretion, Charleston Med. J. Rev. 7:49–56.Google Scholar
  42. 36g.
    C. Bernard 1854. Sur la destruction des glandes au moyen d’injections de matières grasses [On the destruction of glands by injection of fatty materials], C. R. hébd Soc. Biol. 5:115–116.Google Scholar
  43. 36h.
    C. Bernard Influence de l’alcool et de l’éther sur les sécrétions du tube digestif [Influence of alcohol and ether on the secretion of the digestive tract], C. R. hébd Soc. Biol 3:30–32.Google Scholar
  44. 37.
    C. Bernard, 1850. Sur une nouvelle fonction du foie chez l’homme et les animaux [On a new function of the liver in man and animals], C. R. hébd. Acad. Sci. 31:571–574.Google Scholar
  45. 38.
    C. A. V. Hensen, 1857. Ueber die Zuckerbildung in der Leber [On the formation of sugar within the liver], Verh. phys.-med. Gesellsch. Würzburg 7:219.Google Scholar
  46. 39.
    M. D. Germek, 1967. Catalogue des manuscripts de Claude Bernard. Paris: Masson.Google Scholar
  47. 40.
    C. Bernard, 1861. Introduction à l’étude de la médicine expérimentale [Introduction into experimental medicine]. Paris: Baillère.Google Scholar
  48. 41.
    D. Guthrie, 1944. A History of Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott, pp. 79–81.Google Scholar
  49. 42.
    L. Corvisart, 1857. Collection de mémoires sur une fonction peu connue du pancréas [Collection of memoirs on a little known function of the pancreas]. Paris.Google Scholar
  50. 43.
    C. Bernard, 1855. Leçons de physiologie experimentale [Lessons in experimental physiology], Cours 2:178.Google Scholar
  51. 44.
    C. Bernard, 1849. Sur le rôle du suc pancréatique dans la digestion [On the role of the pancreatic juice in digestion], C. R. hébd. Soc. Biof Paris 28:248–253.Google Scholar
  52. 45.
    A. Danilevsky, 1862. Ueber spezifisch wirkende Körper des natürlichen und künstlichen pankreatischen Saftes [On specifically acting substances of the genuine and artificially obtained pancreatic juice], Arch. Path. Anat. 25:279.Google Scholar
  53. 46.
    W. Kühne, 1867. Ueber die Verdauung der Eiweisstoffe durch den Pankreassaft [On the digestion of proteins by the pancreatic juice], Arch. Path. Anat. 39:130–174.Google Scholar
  54. 47.
    A. Castiglioni, 1927; E. B. Krumbhaer (trans.), 1941. A History of Medicine. New York: Knopf, p. 786.Google Scholar
  55. 48.
    F. P. H. Heidenhain, 1875. Beobachtungen über die Bauchspeicheldrüse [Observations on the pancreas], Berl. klin. Wschr. 12:198.Google Scholar
  56. 49.
    I. P. Pavlov, 1897. Lektsii o rabote glavnykh pishchevaritel’nykh zhelez [The work of the digestive glands]. St. Petersburg: Piroda; English translation: Thompson, W. H. (trans.). 1902. London: Charles Griffin.Google Scholar
  57. 50.
    E. A. Asratyan, 1949. [I. P. Pavlov. His Life and Work]. Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences Publishing House; English translation: Academy of Sciences of USSR. 1953. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.Google Scholar
  58. 51.
    . Encyclopedia Britannica Online, “Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich” (accessed June 16, 1999); http://www.eb.corn Google Scholar
  59. 52.
    I. P. Pavlov, 1879. [Methods for the installation of a pancreatic fistula], Trans. St. Petersburg Soc. Nat. Sci. (Russ.) 57:21.Google Scholar
  60. 53.
    I. P. Pavlov, 1888. Die Innervation des Pankreas [The innervation of the pancreas], Klin. Wochenzeitung. 32:667–675; reprinted 1894, Arch. Anat Physiol. 83:116.Google Scholar
  61. 54.
    A. A. Walther, 1896. [The activity of the pancreas on meat, bread, milk, and after pouring in of acid], Trans. St. Petersburg Soc. Nat. Sci. (Russ.) 64:30.Google Scholar
  62. 55.
    W. N. Wassiliew, 1893. [On the influence of various foodstuffs on the activity of the pancreas], Arch. biol. Wiss. 2:218–243.Google Scholar
  63. 56.
    I. L. Dolinski, 1894. [On the influence of acids on the pancreatic secretion], Arch. biol. Wiss. 3:395–421.Google Scholar
  64. 57.
    P. D. Kuwschinski, 1888. [On the influence of some foodstuffs and drugs on the pancreatic secretion]. St. Petersburg (thesis).Google Scholar
  65. 58.
    W. W. Kudrewezki, 1894. [Contributions to the physiology of the pancreas], Arch. Anat. Physiol. 137:83–116.Google Scholar
  66. 59.
    S. G. Mett, 1894. [On the innervation of the pancreas], Arch. Anat Physiol. 137:58–82.Google Scholar
  67. 60.
    C. Popielski, (L. B.). 1896. Ueber sekretorische Hemmungsnerven des Pankreas [On secretory inhibiting nerves of the pancreas], Zbl. Physiol. 10:405.Google Scholar
  68. 61.
    N. P. Shepovalnikov, 1901. [The physiology of the pancreatic juice], Trans. Soc. Russ. Phys. St. Petersburg 68:490–506.Google Scholar
  69. 62.
    B. P. Babkin, 1906. Einige Grundeigenschaften der Fermente des Pankreassaftes [Some fundamental properties of the enzymes in the pancreatic juice], Zbl. ges. Physiol. u. Pathol. d. Stoffw. N.F. 4:97–108.Google Scholar
  70. 63.
    B. P. Babkin, 1903. [The latent form of lipase], Trans. Soc. Russ. Phys. St. Petersburg 71:87–94.Google Scholar
  71. 64.
    R. P. H. Heidenhain, 1875. Eine permanent funktionierende Pankreasfistel [A permanently functioning pancreatic fistula], Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 10:557–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 65.
    B. P. Babkin, 1950. Secretion, in: Secretory Mechanism of the Digestive Glands (B. P. Babkin), 2nd ed. New York: Paul B. Hoebar, Inc., pp. 563–566, cited in: P. J. Fitzgerald. 1980. Medical anecdotes concerning some diseases of the pancreas, in: The Pancreas (P. J. Fitzgerald and A. B. Morrison, eds.). Baltimore/London: Williams and WilliamsGoogle Scholar
  73. 66.
    E. Wertheimer, and M. Lepage, 1901. Sur les fonctions réflexes des ganglions abdominaux du sympathique dans l’innervation sécrétoire du pancréas [On the reflex functions of the abdominal sympathetic ganglia in the secretory innervation of the pancreas], J. Physiol. Pathol. gén. (Paris) 3:335.Google Scholar
  74. 67.
    C. Popielski, 1901. Ueber das periphere sekretorische Nervenzentrum des Pankreas [On the peripheral secretory nerve center of the pancreas], Arch. ges. Physiol. 86:215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 68.
    E. A. Sharpey-Schafer, 1916. The Endocrine Organs: An Introduction to the Study of Internal Secretion. London/New York: Longmans, Green and Co. (based on the Lane Medical Lectures given in 1913).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 69.
    W. M. Bayliss, and E. H. Starling, 1902. The mechanism of pancreatic secretion, J. Physiol. 28:325-353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 70.
    R. M. Zollinger, and D. W. Coleman, 1974. The Influences of Pancreatic Tumors on the Stomach. Springfield IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  78. 71.
    E. H. Starling, 1905. The chemical control of the functions of the body, Lancet 2:339.Google Scholar
  79. 72.
    J. S. Edkins, 1906. The chemical mechanism of gastric secretion, J. Physiol. (London) 34:133.Google Scholar
  80. 73.
    Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine (personal correspondence).Google Scholar
  81. 74.
    B. P. Babkin, 1949. Pavlov, A Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  82. 75.
    J. D. Gardner, G. W. Peskin, J. J. Cerda, and F. P. Brooks, 1967. Alteration of in vitro fluid and electrolyte absorption by gastrointestinal hormones, Am. J. Surg. 113:57–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 76.
    R. M. Zollinger, R. K. Tompkins, J. R. Amerson, G. L. Endahl, A. R. Kraft, and F. F. Moore, 1968. Identification of the diarrheogenic hormone associated with non-beta islet cell tumors of the pancreas, Ann. Surg. 168:502–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 77.
    M. G. Schmidt, K. H. Soegel, G. T. Hensley, and W. T. Chey, 1975. Watery diarrhea associated with pancreatic islet carcinoma, Gastroenterology 69:200.Google Scholar
  85. 78.
    A. C. Ivy, and E. Oldberg, 1928. A hormone mechanism for gallbladder contraction and evacuation, Am. J Physiol. 241:G98–G103.Google Scholar
  86. 79.
    A. A. Harper, and H. S. Raper, 1943. Pancreozymin, a stimulant of the secretion of pancreatic enzymes in the extracts of the small intestine, J. Physiol. (London) 102:115–125.Google Scholar
  87. 80.
    J. E. Jorpes, 1968. The isolation and chemistry of secretin and cholecystokinin Gastroenterology 55:157–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 81.
    T. Wasson, 1987. Nobel Prize Winners. New York: Wilson.Google Scholar
  89. 82.
    G. E. Palade, 1975. Intracellular aspects of the process of protein synthesis, Science 189:347-358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 83.
    G. A. Scheele, and G. E. Palade, 1975. Studies on the guinea pig pancreas: Parallel discharge of exocrine enzyme activitites, J. Biol. Chem. 250:2660–2670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 84.
    G. A. Scheele, 1975. Two-dimensional gel analysis of soluble proteins; characterization of guinea pig exocrine pancreatic proteins, J. Biol Chem. 250:5375–5385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 85.
    H. Rinderknecht, 1986. Pancreatic secretory enzymes, in: The Exocrine Pancreas (V. L. N. Go, J. D. Gardner, F. P. Brooks, E. Leventhal, E. P. DiMagno, and G. A. Scheele, eds.). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  93. 86.
    A. De Caro, C. Figarella, J. Amic, R. Michel, and O. Guy, 1975. Human pancreatic lipase, a glycoprotein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 397:431–441.Google Scholar
  94. 87.
    B. Sternby, and B. Borgström, 1979. Purification and characterization of human pancreatic colipase, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 572:235–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 88.
    D. Stiefel, and P. Keller, 1973. Preparation and some properties of human pancreatic amylase including a comparison with human parotid amylase, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 302:345–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 89.
    A. L. Warshaw, and L. H. Lee, 1980. Aging changes of pancreatic isoamylases and the appearance of `old amylase“ in the serum of patients with pancreatic pseudocysts, Gastroenterology 79:1246–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 90.
    W. W. Douglas, 1968. Stimulus-secretion coupling: The concept and clues from chromaffin and other cells, Br. J. Pharmacol. 34:453–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 91.
    J. D. Gardner, and R. T. Jensen, 1986. Receptors mediating the actions of secretogogues on pancreatic acinar cells, in: The Exocrine Pancreas (V. L. N. Go, J. D. Gardner, F. P. Brooks, E. Leventhal, E. P. DiMagno, and G. A. Scheele, eds.). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  99. 92.
    O. H. Petersen, 1975. Proceedings: Electrical coupling between pancreatic acinar cells, J Physiol. 250:P2–P4.Google Scholar
  100. 93.
    O. H. Petersen, 1980. Electrophysiology of Gland Cells. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  101. 94.
    R. K. S. Lim, S. M. Ling, A. C. Lin, and I. C. Yuan, 1936. Qualitative relationship between the basic and other compounds of pancreatic secretion, Clin. J. Physiol. 40:475–492.Google Scholar
  102. 95.
    F. Hollander, and D. Birnbaum, 1952. The role of carbonic anhydrase in pancreatic secretion, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 15:56–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 96.
    G. Scheele, 1986. Cellular processing of proteins in the exocrine pancreas, in: The Exocrine Pancreas (V. L. N. Go, J. D. Gardner, F. P. Brooks, E. Leventhal, E. P. DiMagno, and G. A. Scheele, eds.). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  104. 97.
    C. Bernard, 1985. Memoir on the Pancreas (J. Henderson, trans.). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  105. 98.
    C. Brunner, and W. von Muralt, 1919. Aus den Briefen hervorragender Schweizer Ärzte des 17 Jahrhunderts. Basel: Benno Schwabe.Google Scholar
  106. 99.
    W. Pagel (ed.), 1930. Lexikon hervorragender Ärzte, 6 volumes. Berlin-Wien: Urban and Schwarzenberg.Google Scholar
  107. 100.
    E. Holländer, 1953. Anekdoten aus der medizinischen weltgeschichte. Stuttgart: Enke.Google Scholar
  108. 101.
    H. Schott, 1993. Chronik der Medizin. Dortmund: Harenberg.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Howard
    • 1
  • Walter Hess
    • 2
  1. 1.Emeritus Medical College of OhioToledoUSA
  2. 2.University of BaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations