• H. D. Gesser


In recent years, strenuous efforts have been made to conserve and recycle resources. Of major concern has been water due to its rising consumption and resultant shortage. Any discussion of water must include its domestic and industrial use. The treatment of waste sewage is the concern of sanitation engineers and will not be considered here.


Chemical Oxygen Demand Biochemical Oxygen Demand Bond Dissociation Energy Cation Exchange Membrane Anion Exchange Membrane 
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Further Reading

  1. M. Dore, Editor, Chemistry of Oxidants and Treatment of Water, VCH, New York (1996).Google Scholar
  2. R. L. Droste, Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Wiley, New York (1996).Google Scholar
  3. S. A. Lewis, The Sierra Club Guide to Safe Drinking Water, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, California(1996).Google Scholar
  4. R. G. Nunn, Water Treatment Essentials for Boiler Plant Operation, McGraw-Hill, New York (1996).Google Scholar
  5. A. E. Greenberg, Editor, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th Ed., APHA,AWWA, WPCF, Washington, DC (1995).Google Scholar
  6. L. C. Wrobel et al., Editor, Water Pollution III, Modelling, Measuring and Prediction, Comp. Mechanics,Billerica, Massachusetts (1995).Google Scholar
  7. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality, Health and Welfare Canada (1993).Google Scholar
  8. M. E. Pilson, Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1992).Google Scholar
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  10. J. C. Stewart, Drinking Water Hazards, Envirographics, Hiram, Ohio (1990).Google Scholar
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  14. F. Coulston and E. Mrak, Editors, Water Quality, Academic Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  15. Water Quality Parameters, ASTM Publication #573 ASTM, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1975).Google Scholar
  16. T. R. Camy and R. L. Meserve, Water and its Impurities, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Inc., Stroudsburg,Pennsylvania (1974).Google Scholar
  17. L. L. Ciaccio, Editor, Water and Water Pollution Handbook, vol. 4, Dekker, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  18. S. Sourirajan, Reverse Osmosis, Academic Press, New York (1970).Google Scholar
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  20. K. S. Speigler, Salt-Water Purification, Wiley, New York (1962).Google Scholar
  21. American Water Works Association, Scholar
  22. American Water Resources Association, Scholar
  23. Water Quality Association, Scholar
  24. National Ground Water Association, Scholar
  25. Water Environment Federation, Scholar
  26. U.S. EPA, Scholar
  27. World water forum, Scholar
  28. Water info., Scholar
  29. US water resources, Scholar
  30. University Water Info. Network, http://www.uwin.siu.eduGoogle Scholar
  31. Scale formation, Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. D. Gesser
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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