On the Incomplete Architecture of Human Ontogeny: Selection, Optimization, and Compensation as Foundation of Developmental Theory

  • Paul B. Baltes
Chapter

Abstract

Drawing on both evolutionary and ontogenetic perspectives, the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development is outlined. Three principles are involved. First, evolutionary selection pressure predicts a negative age correlation, and, therefore, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever-increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity, the efficiency of culture is reduced as life span development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the lifespan architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Degree of completeness can be defined as the ratio between gains and losses in functioning. Two examples illustrate the implications of the lifespan architecture proposed. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of three component processes: selection, optimization, and compensation. The second considers the task of completing the life course in the sense of achieving a positive balance between gains and losses for all age levels. This goal is increasingly more difficult to attain as human development is extended into advanced old age.

During the last decade, we have witnessed a vigorous effort to strengthen the link between evolutionary and ontogenetic perspectives in the study of human behavior.

In this spirit, the purpose of this article is to offer a general framework of the biological and cultural architecture of human development across the life span. With this approach, which considers both evolutionary and ontogenetic arguments, I hope to identify the foundational structure that any general theory of human development must have.

Many of the arguments presented owe their line of reasoning to theoretical propositions associated with lifespan developmental psychology (P. B. Baltes, 1979, 1987; P. B. Baltes, Lindenberger, & Staudinger, in press; Elder, in press; Featherman, 1983; Labouvie-Vief, 1982). The arguments are also consistent with more recent theoretical efforts claiming that ontogenesis is inherently a system of adaptive change involving as foundational elements the orchestration of three subprocesses: selection, optimization, and compensation (M. M. Baltes & Carstensen, 1996; P. B. Baltes & Baltes, 1980, 1990; Heckhausen & Schulz, 1995; Marsiske, Lang, Baltes, & Baltes, 1995; Nesselroade & Jones, 1991).

Especially relevant for the present article is the notion that since the classical work of Tetens (1777), life span scholars proceeded in their theoretical efforts from the basic assumption that human development essentially is incomplete. In this article, I contend that this incompleteness of what I call the biological and cultural architecture of lifespan development is less promising than an unfinished Schubert symphony. The situation is more like an ill-designed building in which inherent vulnerabilities, as old age is reached, become more and more manifest.

The incompleteness of lifespan human development results primarily from two conditions. Incompleteness results first from the fact that biological and cultural co-evolution (Durham, 1991) has not come to a standstill but is an ongoing process. Second, and most important, incompleteness results from the fact that the biological and cultural architecture of human ontogeny is relatively undeveloped for the second part of the lifespan (P. B. Baltes, 1991; P. B. Baltes & Graf, 1996). Neither biological nor cultural evolution has had sufficient opportunity to evolve a full and optimizing scaffolding (architecture) for the later phases of life. A seeming paradox exists: Historically speaking, old age is young.

To explore this incompleteness argument and its implications for the future potentials of human development, lifespan researchers have focused their work on searching for methods to study age-related changes in plasticity (potential) and for conceptualizations that permit the definition of successful or effective human development. One general approach to this topic has been to define successful development as the relative maximization of gains and the minimization of losses (M. M. Baltes & Carstensen, 1996; P. B. Baltes, 1987; P. B. Baltes & Baltes, 1990; Brändtstadter & Wentura, 1995; Marsiske et al., 1995).

Such a gain-loss approach also permits the definition of degrees or completeness or incompleteness of the life span. Using the ratio between achieved gains and losses as a criterion for evaluation, the lifespan architecture would be the more complete, the more, in all age periods of the life course, individuals were to show relatively more gains than losses in functioning. Instead of gains and losses, it would be possible also to use desirable and undesirable states as criteria. Currently, as described below in more detail, this pattern of relative completeness does not exist for all phases of life. Beginning in late adulthood and certainly in old age, losses outnumber gains, and with age the balance becomes less positive (P. B. Baltes, 1987).

The determination of what is a gain or a loss in ontogenetic change is a topic of theoretical as well as empirical inquiry (see also M. M. Baltes & Carstensen, 1996; Brandtstadter, 1984; Hobfoll, 1989; Kahneman & Tversky, 1984; Labouvie-Vief, 1982; Schulz & Heck-hausen, 1996). Suffice it here to mention that the nature of what is considered a gain or a loss can change with age; involves objective in addition to subjective criteria; and is conditioned by theoretical predilection, standards of comparison, cultural and historical context, as well as by criteria of functional fitness or adaptivity.

Keywords

Entropy Europe Dementia Income Posit 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bäckman, L., & Dixon, R. A. (1992). Psychological compensation: A theoretical framework. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baltes, M. M. (1996). The many faces of dependency in old age. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Baltes, M. M., & Carstensen, L. L. (1996). The process of successful ageing. Ageing and Society, 16,397–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baltes, M. M., Kühl, K.-R, & Sowarka, D. (1992). Testing for limits of cognitive reserve capacity: A promising strategy for early diagnosis of dementia? Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 47, P165–P167.Google Scholar
  5. Baltes, M. M, & Silverberg, S. B. (1994). The dynamics between dependency and autonomy: Illustrations across the life span. In D. L. Featherman, R. M. Lerner, & M. Perlmutter (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 12, pp. 41–90). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Baltes, P. B. (1979). Life-span developmental psychology: Some converging observations on history and theory. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 255–279). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Baltes, P. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23, 611–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baltes, P. B. (1991). The many faces of human aging: Toward a psychological culture of old age. Psychological Medicine, 21, 837–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baltes, P. B. (1993). The aging mind: Potential and limits. Gerontologist, 33,580–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baltes, P. B. (1994, August). On the overall landscape of human development. Invited address at the 102nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  11. Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1980). Plasticity and variability in psychological aging: Methodological and theoretical issues. In G. E. Gurski (Ed.), Determining the effects of aging on the central nervous system (pp. 41–66). Berlin, Germany: Schering.Google Scholar
  12. Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1–34). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baltes, P. B., Baltes, M. M., Freund, A. M., & Lang, F. R. (1995). Measurement of selective optimization with compensation by questionnaire. Berlin, Germany: Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education.Google Scholar
  14. Baltes, P. B„ Dittmann-Kohli, F., & Dixon, R. A. (1984). New perspectives on the development of intelligence in adulthood: Toward a dual-process conception and a model of selective optimization with compensation. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 6, pp. 33–76). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Baltes, P. B., & Graf, P. (1996). Psychological aspects of aging: Facts and Frontiers. In D. Magnusson (Ed.), The lifespan development of individuals: Behavioural, neurobiological and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 427–460). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Baltes, P. B., & Kliegl, R. (1992). Further testing of limits of cognitive plasticity: Negative age differences in a mnemonic skill are robust. Developmental Psychology, 28,121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baltes, P. B., & Lindenberger, U. (1997). Emergence of apowerful connection between sensory and cognitive functions across the adult life span: A new window at the study of cognitive aging? Psychology and Aging, 12, 12–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (1995). Die zwei Gesichter der Intelligenz im Alter [The two faces of intelligence in old age]. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, 10, 52–61.Google Scholar
  19. Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (in press). Lifespan theory in developmental psychology. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (5th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Baltes, P. B., Mayer, K. U., Helmchen, H., & Steinghagen-Thiessen, E. (1996). Die Berliner Altersstudie (BASE): Überblick und Einführung [The Berlin Aging Study: Overview and introduction]. In K. U. Mayer & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), Die Berliner Alterstudie (pp. 21–54). Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.Google Scholar
  21. Baltes, P. B., & Schaie, K. W. (1976). On the plasticity of intelligence in adulthood and old age: Where Horn and Donaldson fail. American Psychologist, 31, 720–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (1990). The psychology of wisdom and its ontogenesis. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 87–120). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (1993). The search for a psychology of wisdom. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (Eds.). (1996). Interactive minds: Life-span perspectives on the social foundation of cognition. New York: Combridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (Eds.). (1992). The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Birren, J. E., & Schaie, K. W. (1996). Handbook of the psychology of aging (3rd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Blanchard-Fields, E, & Hess, T. (Eds.). (1995). Perspectives on cognitive change in adulthood. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  28. Boesch, E. E. (1991). Symbolic action theory and cultural psychology. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brandtstädter, J. (1984). Personal and social control over development: Some implications of an action perspective in life-span developmental psychology. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim. Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 6, pp. 1–32). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  30. Bradtstädter, J. (in press). Action theory in developmental psychology. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (5th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Brandtstädter, J., & Wentura, D. (1995). Adjustment to shifting possibility frontiers in later life: Complementary adaptive modes. In R. A. Dixon & L. Backman (Eds.), Psychological compensation: Managing losses and promoting gains (pp. 83–106). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. Brim, O. G., Jr. (1992). Ambition: How we manage success and failure throughout our lives. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  33. Burghardt, G. M. (1984). On the origins of play. In P. K. Smith (Ed.), Play in animals and humans (pp. 1–45). London: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  34. Cantor, N., & Fleeson, W. (1994). Social intelligence and intelligent goal pursuit: A cognitive slice of motivation. In W. D. Spaulding (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 41. Integrative views of motivation, cognition, and emotion (pp. 125–179). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  35. Carstensen, L. L., Hanson, K. A., & Freund, A. (1995). Selection and compensation in adulthood. In R. Dixon & L. Bäckman (Eds.), Compensating for psychological deficits and declines: Managing losses and promoting gains (pp. 107–126). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Cattell, K. B. (1971). Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  37. Cole, M. (1996). Interacting minds in a life-span perspective: A cultural/historical approach to culture and cognitive development. In P. B. Bakes & U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), Interactive minds: Life-span perspectives on the social foundation of cognition (pp. 59–87). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Craik, F. I. M., & Salthouse, T. A. (Eds.), (1992). The handbook of aging and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. Crimmins, E. M, Hay ward, M. D., & Saito, Y. (1996). Differentials in active life expectancy in the older population of the United States. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 51B, S111–S120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. D’Andrade, R. (1995). The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dittmann-Kohli, F. (1995). Das persönliche Sinnsystem: Ein Vergleich zwischenfrühem und spätem Erwach-senenalter [Personal meaning systems: Age differences in adult development and aging]. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  42. Dixon, R. A., & Bäckman, L. (Eds.). (1995). Compensating for psychological deficits and declines: Managing losses and promoting gains. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  43. Durham, W. H. (1991). Coevolution: Genes, culture and human diversity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Edelman, G. M. (1987). Neural Darwinism: The theory of neuronal group selection. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  45. Edelman, G. M., & Tononi, G. (1996). Selection and development: The brain as a complex system. In D. Magnusson (Ed.), The life-span development of individuals: Behavioral, neurobiological and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 179–204). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Elder, G. H. (in press). Life-course theory. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (5th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  47. Ericsson, K. A., & Smith, J. (Eds.). (1991). Towards a general theory of expertise: Prospects and limits. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Featherman, D. L. (1983). The life-span perspective in social science research. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 5, pp. 1–59). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  49. Finch, C. E. (1990). Longevity, senescence, and the genome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  50. Finch, C. E. (1996). Biological bases for plasticity during aging of individual life histories. In D. Magnusson (Ed.), The life-span development of individuals: Behavioral, neurobiological and psychosocial perspective (pp. 488–511). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Finch, C. E., & Rose, M. R. (1995). Hormones and the physiological architecture of life history evolution. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 70, 1–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Freund, A. M., & Baltes, P. B. (1996). Selective optimization with compensation as a strategy of life-management: Prediction of subjective indicators of successful aging. Unpublished manuscript, Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education, Berlin.Google Scholar
  53. Hebb, D. O. (1949). The organization of behavior. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Heckhausen, J., Dixon, R. A., & Baltes, P. B. (1989). Gains and losses in development throughout adulthood as perceived by different adult age groups. Developmental Psychology, 25, 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heckhausen, J., & Schulz, R. (1995). A life-span theory of control. Psychological Review, 102, 284–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Helmchen, H., Baltes, M. M., Geiselmann, B., Kanowski, S., Linden, M., Reischies, F. M., Wagner, M., & Wilms, H.-U. (1996). Psychische Erkrankungen im Alter [Psychiatric illnesses in old age]. In K. U. Mayer & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), Die Berliner Altersstudie (pp. 185–220). Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.Google Scholar
  57. Hetherington, E. M., & Baltes, P. B. (1988). Child psychology and life-span development. In E. M. Hetherington, R. M. Lerner, & M. Perlmutter (Eds.), Child development in life-span perspective (pp. 1–19). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  58. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Horn, J. L. (1970). Organization of data on life-span development of human abilities. In L. R. Goulet & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Research and theory (pp. 423–466). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  60. Horn, J. L., & Hofer, S. M. (1992). Major abilities and development in the adult period. In R. J. Sternberg & C. A. Berg (Eds.), Intellectual development (pp. 44–99). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39, 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kliegl, R., Mayr, U., & Krampe, R. T. (1994). Time-accuracy functions for determining process and person differences: An application to cognitive aging. Cognitive Psychology, 26,134–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kliegl, R., Smith, J., & Baltes, P. B. (1989). Testing-the-limits and the study of age differences in cognitive plasticity of a mnemonic skill. Developmental Psychology, 26, 894–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kliegl, R., Smith, J., & Baltes, P. B. (1990). On the locus and process of magnification of age differences during mnemonic training. Developmental Psychology, 26, 894–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Klix, F. (1993). Erwachendes Denken: Geistige Leistungen aus evolutionspsychologischer Sicht [The evolution of thinking: The mind from an evolutionary—psychological perspective]. Heidelberg, Germany: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.Google Scholar
  66. Labouvie-Vief, G. (1982). Dynamic development and mature autonomy: A theoretical prologue. Human Development, 25,161–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Laslett, P. (1991). Afresh map of life: The emergence of the Third Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Lerner, R. M. (1984). On the nature of human plasticity. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lerner, R. M. (1986). Concepts and theories of human development (2nd ed.). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  70. Levelt, W. J. M. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  71. Lindenberger, U., & Baltes, P. B. (1994). Sensory functioning and intelligence in old age: A strong connection. Psychology and Aging, 9, 339–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lindenberger, U., & Baltes, P. B. (1995). Kognitive Leistungsfahigkeit im hohen Alter: Erste Ergebnisse aus der Berliner Altersstudie [Cognitive capacity in old age: First results from the Berlin Aging Study]. Zeitschrift für Psychologic 203, 283–317.Google Scholar
  73. Lindenberger, U., & Baltes, P. B. (in press). Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: First results from the Berlin Aging Study. Psychology and Aging.Google Scholar
  74. Magnusson, D. (Ed.). (1996). The life-span development of indviduals: Behavioural, neurobiological, and psychosocial perspectives. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Manton, K. G., & Vaupel, J. W. (1995). Survival after the age of 80 in the United States, Sweden, France, England and Japan. New England Journal of Medicine, 333, 1232–1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Marsiske, M., Lang, F. R„ Baltes, M. M., & Baltes, P. B. (1995). Selective optimization with compensation: Life-span perspectives on successful human development. In R. A. Dixon & L. Bäckman (Eds.), Compensation for psychological defects and declines: Managing losses and promoting gains (pp. 35–79). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  77. Martin, G. M., Austad, S. N., & Johnson, T. E. (1996). Genetic analysis of ageing: Role of oxidative damage and environmental stresses. Nature Genetics, 13, 25–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mayer, K. U., & Baltes, P. B. (Eds.). (1996). Die Berliner Altersstudie [The Berlin Aging Study]. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.Google Scholar
  79. Nesselroade, J. R., & Jones, C. J. (1991). Multi-model selection effects in the study of adult development: A perspective on multivariate, replicated, single-subject, repeated measures designs. Experimental Aging Research, 77, 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Osiewacz, H. D. (1995). Molekulare Mechanismen biologischen Alterns [Molecular mechanisms of biological aging]. Biologie in unsererZeit, 25, 336–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rose, M. R. (1991). The evolutionary biology of aging. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Rosenmayr, L. (1990). Die Kräfte des Alters [The powers of old age]. Wien, Germany: Edition Atelier.Google Scholar
  83. Salthouse, T. A. (1991). Theoretical perspectives on cognitive aging. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  84. Schaie, K. W. (1988). The hazards of cognitive aging. Gerontologist, 29, 484–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schaie, K. W. (1994). The course of adult intellectual development. American Psychologist, 49, 304–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schaie, K. W. (1996). Adult intellectual development: The Seattle Longitudinal Study. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Schulz, R., & Heckhausen, J. (1996). A life-span model of successful aging. American Psychologist, 51, 702–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shweder, R. A. (1991). Thinking through cultures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Siegler, R. S. (1994). Cognitive variability: A key to understanding cognitive development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Smith, J. (1996). Planning about life: Toward a social-interactive perspective. In P. B. Bakes & U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), Interactive minds: Life-span perspectives on the social foundation of congnition (pp. 242–275)Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Smith, J., & Bakes, P. B. (1996). Altern aus psychologischer Perspektive: Trends und Profile im hohen Alter [Psychological aging: Trends and profiles in very old age]. In K. U. Mayer & P. B. Bales (Eds.), Die Berliner Altersstudie (pp. 221–250). Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.Google Scholar
  92. Smith, J., & Bakes, P. B. (in press). Profiles of psychological functioning in the old and oldest-old. Psychology and Aging.Google Scholar
  93. Staudinger, U. M., & Baltes, P. B. (1996a). Interactive minds: A facilitative setting for wisdom-related performance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 746–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Staudinger, U. M., & Baltes, P. B. (1996b). Weisheit als Gegenstand psychologischer Forshung [Wisdom as a topic of psychological research]. Psychologische Rundschau, 47, 57–77.Google Scholar
  95. Staudinger, U. M., Marsiske, M., & Baltes, P. B. (1995). Resilience and reserve capacity in later adulthood: Potentials and limits of development across the life span. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 2. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 801–847). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  96. Takahashi, K. (1990). Affective relationships and their lifelong development. In P. B. Baltes, D. L.Featherman, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 10, pp. 1–27). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  97. Tetens, J. N. (1777). Philosophische Versuche uber die menschliche Natur und ihre Entwicklung [Philosophical essays on human nature and its development]. Leipzig, Germany: Weidmanns Erben und Reich.Google Scholar
  98. Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B. (1994). A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  99. Uttal, D. H., & Perlmutter, M. (1989). Toward a broader conceptualization of development: The role of gains and losses across the life span. Developmental Review, 9, 101–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vaupel, J. W., & Jeune, B. (1995). Exceptional longevity: From prehistory to the present. Odense, Denmark: Odense University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Waddington, C. H. (1975). The evolution of an evolutionist. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Willis, S. L. (1990). Contributions of cognitive training research to understanding late-life potential. In M. Perlmutter (Ed.), Late-life potential (pp. 25–42). Washington, DC: The Gerontological Society of America.Google Scholar
  103. Yates, E., & Benton, L. A. (1995). Biological senescence: Loss of integration and resilience. Canadian Journal on Aging, 14, 106–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul B. Baltes
    • 1
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for Human DevelopmentBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations