The Spatial Representation

  • Dennis W. Ricker
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 725)

Abstract

In addition to the estimation of Doppler and delay, bearing or angle with respect to the sonar’s orientation is crucial for scatterer localization. Acoustic energy at the transmitter is usually introduced into the medium by a distributed source (projector array) and echo energy is received via a distributed array of individual transducer elements that convert the acoustic energy back into an electrical signal. Sonar arrays are spatially distributed and when in a line, plane, on the surface of a body, or when distributed throughout a volume, they are called line, planar, conformal, and volumetric arrays respectively. The process of summing the weighted responses of the individual receive array elements or more generally integrating the response over a continuous array is called beam formation. The integrated receive array response to acoustic energy depends upon the direction from which the energy arrives and is described by a beam or pattern function. Likewise the transmit pattern function describes the directional distribution of transmitted intensity from a projector array.

Keywords

Clay Microwave Attenuation Covariance Radar 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis W. Ricker
    • 1
  1. 1.The Pennsylvania State UniversityUSA

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