Sleep pp 201-205 | Cite as

Transient and short term insomnia

  • R. Peraita Adrados

Abstract

The Consensus Development Conference on sleep disorders convened by the National Institute of Mental Health in 1979 [14] subdivided insomnia into transient, short term, and long term or chronic conditions. The first type lasts one to several days, the second, from one to 4 weeks and chronic insomnia for more than 4 weeks. The first and second types will be dealt with in this chapter, i.e. insomnia which is systematically linked to a clearly determined, perfectly identifiable cause, occurring in persons with a history of normal sleep. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) [9] comprises four sections, dyssomnias, parasomnias, sleep disorders associated with medical or psychiatric disorders and “proposed” sleep disorders. The section on dyssomnias itself comprises three subgroups: intrinsic sleep disorders, extrinsic sleep disorders and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Most transient and short term insomnias are classed in the subgroup of extrinsic disorders, i.e. those whose causes are external to the organism Four of the main ones will be dealt with here: insomnia due to inadequate sleep hygiene, environment-related insomnia, altitude insomnia and adjustment or short term insomnia, to which will be added insomnia due to transient physical stress, pain, coughing, pruritis, not explicitly mentioned in the ICSD, as well as rebound insomnia following the discontinuation of certain hypnotics.

Keywords

Fatigue Migraine Respiration Cocaine Caffeine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    AGNEW H., WEBB W., WILLIAMS R.L. - The first night effect: an EEG study of sleep.Psychophysiology, 7, 263–266, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ANGST J., VOLLRATH M., KOCH R., DOBBLER-MIKOLA A. - The Zurich Study. VII. Insomnia: Symptoms, Classification and Prevalence. Eur.Arch. Psychiatry Neurol Sci., 238, 285–293, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    BERSSENBRUGGE A., DEMPSEY J., IBER C., SKATRUD J., WILSON P. - Mechanisms of hypoxia-induced periodic breathing during sleep in humans.J. Physiol., 343, 507–524, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    BIXLER E.D., KALES J.D., KALES A., JACOBY J.A., SOLDATOS C.R. - Rebound insomnia and elimination half-life: assesment of individual subject response.J. Clin. Pharmacol., 25, 115–124, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    DEMENT W.C. - Normal sleep, disturbed sleep, transient and persistent insomnia.Acta Psychiatr. Scand. Suppl., 332, 41–46, 1986.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    EHRHART J., MUZET A. - Fréquence et durée des phases d’activation transitoire au cours du sommeil normal ou perturbé chez l’homme.Arch. Sci. Physiol., 28, 213–260, 1964.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    GALLUP ORGANIZATION -Sleep in America, Princeton, New Jersey, 1991.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    HASKELL E.H., PALCA J.W., WALKER J.M., BERGER R.J., HELLER M.C. - The effects of high and low ambient temperature on human sleep stages. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 51, 494–501, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    ICSD: The International Classification of Sleep Disorders. -Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Diagnostic Classification Steering Committee. MJ. Thorpy Chairman, American Sleep Disorders Association, Rochester, Minnesota, 1990.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    KALES A., SOLDATOS C.R., BIXLER E.D., KALES J.D. - Rebound insomnia and rebound anxiety: a review.Pharmacology, 26, 121–137, 183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    KARAKAN I, THORNBY J, WILLIAMS RL. - Sleep disturbance: a community survey. In:Natural history, epidemiology, and long-term evolution sleep-wake disorders, C. Guilleminault, E. Lugaresi (eds.), Raven Press, New York, 73–86, 1983.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    MORIN C.M. - Vaincre les ennemis du sommeil. Les Editions de l’Homme. Quebec, 1997.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    MUZET A. - Les effects du bruit sur le sommeil.C.R. Soc. Bioi., 183,437–422,1989.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Consensus Development Conference - Drugs and Insomnia.JAMA, 251, 2410–2414, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    NICHOLSON A.N., SMITH P.A., STONE B.M., BRADWELL A.R., COOTE J.H. - Altitude insomnia: studies during an expedition to the Himalayas.Sleep, 11, 534–361, 1988.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    OSWALD I., ADAM K. - A new look at short-acting hypnotics. In:Imidazopyridines in sleep disorders. Sauvanet J.P., Langer S.Z., Morselli P.L. (eds) Raven Press, New York, 253–260, 1988.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    REITE M., JACKSON D., CAHOON R.L., WEIL J.V. - Sleep physiology at high altitude.Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 38,463–471, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    SCHIEBER J.P., MUZET A., FERRIERE P.J. - Les phases d’activation transitoire spontanées au cours du sommeil normal chez l’homme.Arch. Sci. Physiol., 25,443–465, 1971.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    VALLET M., MOURET J. - Sleep disturbance due to transportation noise: ear plugs or oral drugs.Experientia, 40,429–437, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    VELA-BUENO A., DE ICETA M., FERNANDEZ C. - Prevalence of sleep disorders in Madrid,Spain. Gac. Sanit., 13(6), 441–448, 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Peraita Adrados
    • 1
  1. 1.Unidad de SueñoHospital Gregorio MarañonMadridEspaña

Personalised recommendations