Oral Health, Early Childhood

  • Tegwyn L. Hughes
  • Georgia G. Dela Cruz
  • R. Gary Rozier

Abstract

In his report “Oral Health in America”, the US Surgeon General identified a “silent epidemic” of dental disease within the United States (US Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2000). Children in poor families bear a particularly heavy bürden, with many unable to achieve their füll potential because tooth decay and other dental diseases interfere with their well-being and functioning. Poor oral health is all the more tragic because safe, effective and low-cost preventive methods are available for use by the public, health Professionals and related groups. This entry reviews the scope of dental problems faced by children 0–5 years of age, the preventive methods available to address these problems, the evidence for their effectiveness, and recommendations for their use.

Keywords

Sugar Obesity Toxicity Phosphorus Magnesium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Almeida, R., Hill, I., & Kenney, G. (2001). Does SCHIP spell better dental care access for children ? An early look at new initiatives. Retrieved August 6, 2001, from http://newfederalism.urban.orgGoogle Scholar
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). (1995). Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine. Recommendations for pediatric health care. Pediatrics, 96, 833.Google Scholar
  3. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Committee on Drugs. (1996). Unapproved uses of approved drugs: the physician, the package insert, and the Food and Drug Administration: subject review. Pediatrics, 98, 118–123.Google Scholar
  4. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD). (2000). 2000–2001 American academy of pediatric dentistry reference manual. Pediatric Dentistry, 22(Suppl.), 1–119.Google Scholar
  5. Autio-Gold, J.T., & Courts, F. (2001). Assessing the effect of fluoride varnish on early enamel carious lesions in the primary dentition. Journal of the American Dental Association, 132, 1247–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bader, J.D., Shugars, D.A., Rozier, R.G. et al. (2000). Diagnosis and management of dental caries: Evidence report (Vols. 1 & 2). Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, J.D. (1998). Risk revisited. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 26, 220–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, J.L., Wall, T.P., & Lazar, V. (2000). Trends in untreated caries in primary teeth of children 2 to 10 years old. Journal of the American Dental Association, 131, 93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Casamassimo, P.S. (1996). Bright futures in practice: Oral health. Arlington, VA: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health.Google Scholar
  10. Cashion, S.W., Vann, W.F., Jr., Rozier, R.G., Venezie, R.D., & Mclver, F.T. (1999). Children’s utilization of dental care in the NC Medicaid program. Pediatric Dentistry, 21, 97–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (1999). Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 48(41), 933–940.Google Scholar
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2001). Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. MMWR Recommendations and Reports, 50(RR14), 1–42.Google Scholar
  13. Creedon, M.I., & O’Mullane, D.M. (2001). Factors affecting caries levels amongst 5-year-old children in County Kerry, Ireland. Community Dental Health, 18, 72–78.Google Scholar
  14. Drury, T.F., Horowitz, A.M., Ismail, A.I., Maertens, M.P., Rozier, R.G., & Selwitz, R.H. (1999). Diagnosing and reporting early childhood caries for research purposes: Report of a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Health Resources and Services Administration, and Health Care Financing Administration. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 59, 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Evans, C.A. (2001). Opportunity: Creating a national oral health plan. Journal of Dental Research, 80, 1784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Featherstone, J.D.B. (2000). The science and practice of caries prevention. Journal of the American Dental Association, 131, 887–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fisher, B., Neve, H., & Heritage, Z. (1999). Community development, user involvement, and primary health care. British Medical Journal, 318, 749–750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. General Accounting Office. (2000). Oral health: Factors contributing to low use of dental services by low-income populations. GAO/HEHS-00-72.Google Scholar
  19. Green, L.W., & Kreuter, M.W. (1999). Health promotion planning: An education and ecological approach (3rd ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  20. Hardison, J.R., Collier, D.R., Sprouse, L.W., Van Cleave, M.L., & Hogan, A.D. (1987). Retention of pit and fissure sealant on the primary molars of 3- and 4-year-old children after 1 year. Journal of the American Dental Association, 114, 613–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). (1998). Oral disease, a crisis among children in poverty. Retrieved September 15, 2001, from http://www.hrsa.gov/oralhealthGoogle Scholar
  22. Holm, A.K. (1979). Effect of fluoride varnish (Duraphat) in preschool children. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 7, 241–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Institute of Medicine (IOM), Food and Nutrition Board. (1997). Dietary reference intakes: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  24. Ismail, A.I. (1998). Prevention of early childhood caries. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 26(Suppl. 1), 49–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanellis, M.J. (2000). Caries risk assessment and prevention: Strategies for Head Start, Early Head Start, and WIC. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 60, 210–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaste, L.M., Drury, T.F., Horowitz, A.M., & Beltran, E. (1999). An evaluation of NHANES III estimates of early childhood caries. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 59, 198–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Klimek, J., Prinz, H., Hellwig, E., & Ahrens, G. (1985). Effect of a preventive program based on professional toothcleaning and fluoride application on caries and gingivitis. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 13, 295–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kowash, M.B., Pinfield, A., Smith, J., & Curzon, M.E.J. (2001). Effectiveness on oral health of a long-term health education programme for mothers with young children. British Dental Journal, 188, 2001–2005.Google Scholar
  29. Last, J.M., & Abramson, J.H. (1995). A dictionary of epidemiology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Lewis, D.W., & Ismail A.I. (1995). Periodic health examination, 1995. Update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 152, 836–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lewit, E.M., & Monheit, A.C. (1992). Expenditures on health for children and pregnant women. In: Center for the Future of Children. US health care for children. Los Altos, CA: Center for the Future of Children, David and Lucile Packard Foundation.Google Scholar
  32. Locker, D., Lawrence, H., & Jokovic, A. (1999). Benefits and risks for water fluoridation. Report prepared for Ontario’s public consultation on water fluoridation levels. Toronto, CN: University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  33. Lockwood, S.A., & Malvitz, D.M. (1995). Trends in state agency oral health and public health expenditures, 1984 through 1989. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 1266–1268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Milgrom, P., Hujoel, P., Grembowski, D., & Fong, R. (1999). A community strategy for Medicaid child dental services. Public Health Report, 114, 528–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nowak, A.J., & Casamassimo, P.S. (1995). Using anticipatory guidance to’ provide early dental intervention. Journal of American Dental Association, 126, 1156–1163.Google Scholar
  36. Nowak, A.J., & Warren, J.J. (2000). Infant oral health and oral habits. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 47, 1043–1066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2000). Healthy People 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2001, from http://www.health. gov/healthypeople/Document/HTML/Volume2/21Oral.htm#_ Toc489700403Google Scholar
  38. Rozier, R.G. (2001). Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries. Journal of Dental Education, 65, 1067–1077.Google Scholar
  39. Slavkin, H.C. (1998). Meeting the challenges of craniofacial-oral-dental birth defects. Retrieved September 15, 2001, from www.nidcr.nih.gov/ slavkin/birth%5Fdf.htmGoogle Scholar
  40. Slavkin, H.C. (1999). Streptococcus mutans, early childhood caries and new opportunities. Journal of the American Dental Association, 130, 1787–1792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sogaard, A.J. (1993). Theories and models of health behavior. In L. Schou & A.S. Blinkhorn (Ed.), Oral health promotion (pp. 25–64). New York: Oxford Medical.Google Scholar
  42. Tinanoff, N. (1995). Critique of evolving methods for caries risk assessment. Journal of Dental Education, 59, 980–995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Tinanoff, N., & Palmer, C.A. (2000). Dietary determinants of dental caries and dietary recommendations for preschool children. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 60, 197–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). (2000). Oral health in America. A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  45. US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), Office of the Inspector General. (1996). Children’s dental services under Medicaid. Access and utilization. San Francisco: Office of Evaluation and Inspection; Publication No. OE1-09-93-00240.Google Scholar
  46. US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). (1996). Guide to clinical preventive services (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  47. Vargas, C.M., Crall, J.J., & Schneider, D.A. (1998). Sociodemographic distribution of pediatric dental caries: NHANES III, 1988–1994. Journal of the American Dental Association, 129, 1229–1238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Watson, M.R. (2000). Response to Kanellis: Caries risk assessment and prevention, strategies for Head Start, Early Head Start, and WIC. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 60, 218–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tegwyn L. Hughes
  • Georgia G. Dela Cruz
  • R. Gary Rozier

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations