Advertisement

Cyclooxygenase-2 Induction in Rat Spinal Cord Injury Mediated By Proinflammatory Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-1

  • Takeharu Tonai
  • Yutaka Taketani
  • Yasukazu Ohmoto
  • Natsuo Ueda
  • Takehiko Nishisho
  • Shozo Yamamoto
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 507)

Abstract

It is well established that the spinal cord is subjected to inflammatory reactions in response to traumatic injury. Several investigators found a major reduction of blood flow in the spinal cord after injury, and vasospasm and thrombosis are considered as major causes of the ischemic insult’. Inflammatory responses underlying the secondary processes are initiated and regulated by specific signaling molecules. Among them vasoactive arachidonate metabolites (eicosanoids) play an important role; proaggregatory and vasoconstrictive thromboxane (TX) A2 as well as antiaggregatory and vasodilating prostaglandin (PG) I22. Cyclooxygenase isozymes (COX-1 and COX-2) are key enzymes, and proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-1 stimulate the eicosanoid synthesis by the induction of COX-2 in various cell types3,4. Recently, COX-2 induction in the central nervous system was demonstrated in response to seizures5and excitotoxin injection.

Keywords

Spinal Cord Injury Acute Spinal Cord Injury Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Eicosanoid Synthesis Vasodilating Prostaglandin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C.H. Tator, M.G. Fehlings, Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanismsJ. Neurosurg.75:15 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Moncada, and J.R.Vane, Pharmacology and endogenous roles of prostaglandin endoperoxides, thromboxane A2 and prostacyclinPharmacol. Rev.30:293 (1979).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H.R. Herschman, Prostaglandin synthase 2Biochim. Biophys. Acta1299:125 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.L. Smith, R.M. Gravito, and D.L. DeWitt, Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (cyclooxygenases)-1 and -2J. Biol. Chem.271:33175 (1996).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Yamagata, K.I. Andreasson, W.E. Kaufmann, C.A. Barnes, and P.F. Worley, Expression of a mitogeninducible cyclooxygenase in brain neurons: Regulation by synaptic activity and glucocorticoids, Neuron 11:371 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Adams, Y. Collaço-Moraes, and J. Belleroche, Cyclooxygenase-2 induction in cerebral cortex: An intracellular response to synaptic excitationJ. Neurochem.66:6 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.Y. Hsu, P.V. Halushka, K.M. Spicer, E.L. Hogan, and H.F. Martin, Temporal profile of thromboxaneprostacyclin imbalance in experimental spinal cord injury, J. Neurol. Sci. 83:55 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Nishisho, T. Tonai, Y. Tamura, and T. Ikata, Experimental and clinical studies of eicosanoids in cerebrospinal fluid after spinal cord injury, Neurosurgery 39:560 (1996).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Tonai, Y. Taketani, U. Ueda, T. Nishish, Y. Ohmoto, Y. Sakata, M. Muraguchi, K. Wada, and S. Yamamoto, Possible involvement of interleukin-1 in cyclooxygenase-2 induction after spinal cord injury in rats, J. Neurochem.72:302(1999).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Futaki, I.Arai, Y. Hamasaka, S. Takahashi, S. Higuchi, and S. Otomo, Selective inhibition of NS-398 on prostanoid production in inflamed tissue in rat carrageenan-air-pouch inflammation, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 45:753 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.B. Bracken, M.J. Shepard, W.F. Collins, T.R. Holford, W. Young, D.S. Baskin, H.M. Eisenberg, E. Flamm, L. Leo-Summers, J. Maroon, L.F. Marshall, P.L. Perot Jr., J. Piepmeier, V.K.H. Sonntag, F.C. Wagner, J.E. Wilberger, and H.R. Winn, A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury. Results of the second national acute spinal cord injury study, N. Engl. J. Med. 322:1405 (1990).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P.J. Foreman, G. Taglialatela, G.R. Jackson, and J.R. Perez-Polo, Dexamethasone blocks nerve growth factor induction of nerve growth factor receptor mRNA in P12 cells, J. Neurosci. Res. 31:52 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Cosi, P.E. Spoerri, M.C. Comelli, D. Guidolin, and S.D. Skaper, Glucocorticoids depress activity-dependent expression of BDNF mRNA in hippocampal neurons, Neuroreport 4:527 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D.K. Resnick, S.H. Graham, C.E. Dixon, D.W. Marion, Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in acute spinal cord injury, J. Neurotrauma 15:1005 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Sairanen, A. Ristimäki, M.L. Karjalainen-Lindsberg, A. Paetau, M. Kasta, P.J. Lindsberg, Cyclooxygenase-2 is induced globally in infarcted human brain, Ann. Neurol. 43:738 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takeharu Tonai
    • 1
  • Yutaka Taketani
    • 2
  • Yasukazu Ohmoto
    • 3
  • Natsuo Ueda
    • 2
  • Takehiko Nishisho
    • 1
  • Shozo Yamamoto
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Research InstituteNational Zentsuji HospitalZentsuji, Kagawa
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryTokushima University, School of MedicineKuramoto-cho, Tokushima
  3. 3.Cellular Technology InstituteOtsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.TokushimaJapan

Personalised recommendations