Advertisement

The Behavior of Organizations

  • Joseph Galaskiewicz
  • Wolfgang Bielefeld
Part of the Nonprofit and Civil Society Studies book series (NCSS)

Abstract

In this chapter we offer a theory that can explain the similarities and differences in the managerial priorities and tactics of charities and for-profit providers. We do not attribute much importance to legal form but rather focus on conditions in the organizations’ niches. The chapter is divided into three sections. The first reviews research that examines the different outputs and outcomes of charities and for-profits. Second, we review theories and research proffered by the sociology and management literatures to gain perspective on what might explain managerial priorities and tactics. Finally, we use recent advances in niche theory to shed light on why many charities have priorities and tactics similar to for-profits while others remain quite distinct. In the course of this exercise we hope to introduce a framework for studying organizations—both for-profits and charities—that will prove useful for students of macro-organizational behavior.

Keywords

Nonprofit Organization American Sociological Review Nonprofit Sector Legal Form Managerial Priority 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albert, S., & Whetten, D. A. (1985). Organizational identity, 263-95. In B. M. Staw, and L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 7, pp. 263–295). Greenwich, CT: JAI.Google Scholar
  2. Armen, A., & Demsetz, H. (1972). Production, information costs and economic organization. American Economic Review, 62, 777–795.Google Scholar
  3. Aldrich, H., Staber, U., Zimmer, C., & Beggs, J. J. (1990). Minimalism and organizational mortality: Patterns of disbanding among U.S. Trade Associations, 1900–1983. In J. Singh (Ed.), Organizational evolution: New directions (pp. 21–52). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, V. (1996). Pictures at an exhibition: Conflicting pressures in museums and the display of art. American Journal of Sociology, 101, 797–839.Google Scholar
  5. Astley, W. G., & Van de Ven, A. H. (1983). Central perspectives and debates in organization theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 245–273.Google Scholar
  6. Barnett, W. P., & Carroll, G. R. (1995). Modeling internal organizational change. Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 217–236.Google Scholar
  7. Barnett, W. P., & Carroll, G. R. (1987). Competition and mutualism among early telephone companies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 400–421.Google Scholar
  8. Barney, J. B., & Ouchi, W.J. (Eds.), (1986). Organizational economics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  9. Baum, J. A. C., & Haveman, H. A. (1997). Love thy neighbor? Differentiation and agglomeration in the Manhattan Hotel Industry, 1898–1990. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 304–338.Google Scholar
  10. Baum, J. A. C., & Oliver, C. (1991). Institutional linkages and organizational mortality. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 187–218.Google Scholar
  11. Baum, J. A. C., & Oliver, C. (1992). Institutional embeddedness and the dynamics of organizational populations. American Sociological Review, 57, 540–559.Google Scholar
  12. Baum, J. A. C., & Oliver, C. (1996). Toward an institutional ecology of organizational foundings. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1378–1427.Google Scholar
  13. Baum, J. A. C., & Powell, W. W. (1995). Cultivating an institutional ecology of organizations. American Sociological Review, 60, 529–538Google Scholar
  14. Baum, J. A. C., & Singh, J. V. (1994a). Organizational niche overlap and the dynamics of organizational mortality. American Journal of Sociology, 100, 346–380.Google Scholar
  15. Baum, J. A. C., & Singh, J. V. (1994b). Organizational niche overlap and the dynamics of organizational founding. Organization Science, 5, 483–502.Google Scholar
  16. Baum, J. A. C., & Singh, J. V. (1996). Dynamics of organizational response to competition. Social Forces, 74, 1261–1297.Google Scholar
  17. Bielefeld, W. (1992). Funding uncertainty and nonprofit strategies in the 1980s. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 2, 381–402.Google Scholar
  18. Bielefeld, W., & Corbin, J. J (1996). The institutionalization of nonprofit human service delivery: The role of culture. Administration and Society, 28, 362–389.Google Scholar
  19. Bielefeld, W., Murdoch, J., & Waddell, P. (1997). The influence of demographics and distance on nonprofit location. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 26, 207–225.Google Scholar
  20. Bielefeld, W., & Scotch, R. (1996). Institutionalizing AIDS: Policy, institutional culture, and the response to the HIV epidemic in dallas. Research in Social Policy, 4, 39–53.Google Scholar
  21. Bigelow, B., Middleton Stone, M., & Arndt, M. (1996). Corporate strategy: A framework for Understanding Nonprofit Strategy. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 7, 29–43.Google Scholar
  22. Burt, R. S. (1983). Corporate profits and cooptation: Networks of market constraint and directorate ties in the American economy. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Burt, R. S., & Talmud, I. (1993). Market niche. Social Networks, 15, 133–149.Google Scholar
  24. Bush, R. (1992). Survival of the nonprofit spirit in a for-profit world. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 21, 391–410.Google Scholar
  25. Carroll, G. R. (1984). Organizational ecology. Annual Review of Sociology, 10, 71–93.Google Scholar
  26. Carroll, G. R. (1985). Concentration and specialization: Dynamics of niche width in populations of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 1262–1283.Google Scholar
  27. Carroll, G. R., & Hannan, M. T. (Eds.), (1995). Organizations in industry: Strategy, structure and selection. New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Chandler, Jr., A. D. (1962) Strategy and structure: Chapters in the history of the American industrial enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  29. Chang, C. F., & Tuckman, H. P. (1990). Why do nonprofit managers accumulate surpluses, and how much do they accumulate? Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 1, 117–135.Google Scholar
  30. Christensen, S., & Molin, J. (1995). Origin and transformation of organizations: Institutional analysis of the Danish Red Cross. In W. R. Scott & S. Christensen (Eds.), The institutional construction of organizations, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Clarke, L., & Estes, C. L. (1992). Sociological and economic theories of markets and nonprofits: Evidence from home health organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 97, 945–969.Google Scholar
  32. Clarkson, K. (1972). Some implications of property rights in hospital management. Journal of Law and Economics, 15, 363–385.Google Scholar
  33. Clemens, E. S. (2000, August). The encounter of civil society and the States: Legislation, law and association, 1900–1920. Paper Presented at the Meetings of the American Science Association.Google Scholar
  34. Clotfelter, C. T. (Ed.). (1992). Who benefits from the nonprofit sector? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Coleman, J. S. (1974). Power and the structure of society. New York: Norton & Co.Google Scholar
  36. Dill, W. R. (1958). Environment as an influence on managerial autonomy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2, 409–443.Google Scholar
  37. DiMaggio, P. (1988). Interest and agency in institutional theory In L. G. Zucker (Ed.), Institutional patterns and organizations: Culture and environment (pp. 3–21). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  38. DiMaggio, P. (1991). Constructing an organizational field as a professional project: U.S. Art Museums, 1920–1940. In W. W. Powell & P. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 267–292). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  39. DiMaggio, P., & Anheier, H. (1990). The sociology of nonprofit organizations and sectors. Annual Review of Sociology, 16, 137–159.Google Scholar
  40. DiMaggio, P., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The Iron Cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48, 147–160.Google Scholar
  41. DiMaggio, P., & Powell, W. W. (1991). Introduction. In W. W. Powell & P. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 1–38). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  42. Eckel, C., & Steinberg, R. (1993). Competition, performance, and public policy towards nonprofits. In D. Hammack & D. Young, (Eds.). Nonprofit organizations in a market economy (pp. 57–81). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  43. Evan, W. E., & Freeman, R. E. (1988). A stakeholder theory of the modern corporation: Kantian capitalism. In T. L. Beauchamp & N. E. Bowie (Eds.), Ethical theory and business (3rd edition, pp. 97–106). Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  44. Ferris, J., & Grady, E. (1989). Fading distinctions among the nonprofit, government and for-profit sectors. In V. Hodgkinson & R. Lyman (Eds.), The future of the nonprofit sector. New York: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  45. Feigenbaum, S. (1987). Competition and performance in the nonprofit sector: The case of U.S. medical research charities. Journal of Industrial Economics, 35, 241–253.Google Scholar
  46. Fligstein, N. (1996). Markets as politics: A cultural approach to market institutions. American Sociological Review, 61, 656–673.Google Scholar
  47. Fombrun, C.J. (1996). Reputation: Realizing value from the corporate image. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  48. Freeman, E. R. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Marshfield, MA: Pitman.Google Scholar
  49. Friedland, R., & Alford, R. R (1991). Bring society back in: Symbols, practices, and institutional contradictions. In W. W. Powell & P. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 232–263). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  50. Galaskiewicz, J. (1979). Exchange networks and community politics. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  51. Galaskiewicz, J. (1985). Social organization of an urban grants economy. Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  52. Galaskiewicz, J., & Bielefeld, W. (1998). Nonprofit organizations in an age of uncertainty: A study of organizational change. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  53. Galaskiewicz, J., & Rauschenbach, B. (1988). The corporation-culture connection: A test of interorganizational theories. In C. Milofsky (Ed.), Community organizations: Studies in resource mobilization and exchange (pp. 119–135). New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  54. Gray, B. H. (1991). The profit motive and patient care: The changing accountability of doctors and hospitals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Gronbjerg, K. A. (1993). Understanding nonprofit funding: Managing revenues in social service and community development organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  56. Halliday, T., Powell, M., & Granfors, M. (1987). Minimalist organizations: Vital events in state bar associations. American Sociological Review, 52, 456–471.Google Scholar
  57. Hamilton, V. (1994). The impact of ownership form and regulatory measures on firm behavior: A study of hospices. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 4, 415–430.Google Scholar
  58. Handy, F. (1995). Reputations as collateral: An economic analysis of the role of trustees of nonprofits. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 24(4), 293–305.Google Scholar
  59. Hannan, M. T., & Carroll, J. (1992). Dynamics of organizational populations. New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  60. Hannan, M. T., & Carroll, G. R. (1995a). An introduction to organizational ecology. In G. R. Carroll & M. T. Hannan (Eds.), Organizations in industry: Strategy, structure and selection (pp. 17–31). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Hannan, M. T., & Carroll, G. R. (1995b). Theory building and cheap talk about legitimation: Reply to Baum and Powell. American Sociological Review, 60, 539–544.Google Scholar
  62. Hannan, M. T., Carroll, G. R., Dundon, E., & Torres, J. C. (1995). Organizational evolution in a multinational context. American Sociological Review, 60, 509–528.Google Scholar
  63. Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1977). The population ecology of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 929–964.Google Scholar
  64. Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1988). The ecology of organizational mortality: American labor unions, 1836–1985. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 25–52.Google Scholar
  65. Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1989). Organizational ecology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Hansmann, H. B. (1980). The role of nonprofit enterprise. Yale Law Journal, 89, 835–898.Google Scholar
  67. Hansmann, H. B. (1981). Nonprofit enterprise in the performing arts. Bell Journal of Economics, 12, 341–361.Google Scholar
  68. Hansmann, H. B. (1996). The ownership of enterprise. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Haunschild, P. R., & Miner, A. S. (1997). Modes of interorganizational imitation: The effects of outcome salience and uncertainty. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 472–500.Google Scholar
  70. Hawley, A. (1950). Human ecology. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hirsch, P. M. (1997). Sociology without social structure: Neoinstitutional theory meets brave new world. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 1702–1723.Google Scholar
  72. Hodgkinson, V. A., & Weitzman, M. A. (1996). Nonprofit almanac, 1996–1997 (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  73. Holtman, A. G. (1983). A theory of non-profit firms. Economica, 50, 439–449.Google Scholar
  74. James, E. (1983). How nonprofits grow: A model. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 2, 350–366.Google Scholar
  75. Jepperson, R. L., & Meyer, J. W. (1991). The public order and the construction of formal organizations. In W. W. Powell & P. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 204–231). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  76. Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1976). Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs, and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3, 305–360.Google Scholar
  77. Knoke, D. (2001). Changing organizations: Business networks in the new political economy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  78. Kraatz, M. S., & Zajac, E. (1996). Exploring the limits of the new institutionalism: The causes and consequences of illegitimate organizational change. American Sociological Review, 61, 812–836.Google Scholar
  79. Krashinsky, M. (1998). In W. W. Powell & E. Clemens (Eds.), Private action and the public good, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Lawrence, P., & Lorsch, J. (1967). Organizational and Environment: Managing differentiation and integration. Boston: Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration.Google Scholar
  81. Lee, M. L. (1971). A conspicuous consumption theory of hospital behavior. Southern Economics Journal, 38, 48–58.Google Scholar
  82. Levine, S., & White, P. (1961). Exchange as a conceptual framework for the study of interorganizational relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 5, 583–601.Google Scholar
  83. March, J., & Simon, H. (1958). Organizations. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  84. Mauser, E. (1998). The importance of organizational form: Parent perceptions versus reality in the day-care industry. In W. W. Powell & E. Clemens (Eds.), Private action and the public good, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  85. McPherson, M.J. (1983). An ecology of affiliation. American Sociological Review, 48, 519–35.Google Scholar
  86. McPherson, M. J., & Rotolo, T. (1996). Testing a dynamic model of social composition: Diversity and change in voluntary groups. American Sociological Review, 61, 179–202.Google Scholar
  87. Meyer, J. W. (1994). Institutionalization and organizational rationalization in the mental health system. In W. R. Scott, J. W. Meyer, & Associates (Eds.), Institutional environments and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  88. Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 340–363.Google Scholar
  89. Minkoff, D. (1997). The sequencing of social movements. American Sociological Review, 62, 779–799.Google Scholar
  90. Mintzberg, H. (1987). In G. R. Carroll & D. Vogel (Eds.), Organizational approaches to strategy (pp.7–20). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  91. Mouritsen, J., & Skaerbaek, P. (1995). Civilization, art, and accounting: The Royal Danish Theater—An enterprise straddling two institutions. In W. R. Scott & S. Christensen (Eds.), The institutional construction of organizations, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  92. Newhouse, J. P. (1970). Toward a theory of nonprofit institutions: An economic model of a hospital. American Economic Review, 60, 64–73.Google Scholar
  93. Niskanen, W. A., Jr. (1971). Bureaucracy and representative government. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine.Google Scholar
  94. Oliver, C. (1991). Strategic responses to institutional processes. Academy of Management Review, 16, 145–179.Google Scholar
  95. Pauley, M., & Redisch, M. (1973). The not-for-profit hospital as a physicians’ cooperative. American Economic Review, 63, 87–99.Google Scholar
  96. Pennings, J. M. (1985). Introduction: On the nature and theory of strategic decisions. In J. M. Pennings (Ed.), Organizational strategy and change (pp. 1–34). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  97. Perrow, C. (1961). Organizational prestige: Some functions and dysfunctions. American Journal of Sociology, 66, 335–341.Google Scholar
  98. Pfeffer, J. (1981). Power in organizations. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  99. Pfeffer, J., & Leong, A. (1977). Resource allocations in United Funds: Examination of power and dependence. Social Forces, 55, 775–790.Google Scholar
  100. Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1974). Organizational decision making as a process: The case of a university budget. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, 135–151.Google Scholar
  101. Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  102. Podolny, J. M., Stuart, T.E., & Hannan, M.T. (1996). Networks, knowledge, and niches: Competition in the worldwide semiconductor industry, 1984–1991. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 659–689.Google Scholar
  103. Preston, A.E. (1988). The nonprofit firm: A potential solution to inherent market failures. Economic Inquiry, 26, 493–506.Google Scholar
  104. Provan, K. G., Beyer, J. M., & Kruytbosch, C. (1980). Environmental linkages and power in resource-dependence relations between organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 200–225.Google Scholar
  105. Roller, R. H. (1996). Strategy formulation in nonprofit social services organizations: A proposed framework. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 7, 137–153.Google Scholar
  106. Ruef, M., & Scott, W. R. (1998). A multidimensional model of organizational legitimacy: Hospital survival in changing institutional environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, 877–904.Google Scholar
  107. Rubin, J. (1999). Community development venture capital: A study of cross-sector organizations. Working papers, Crossing the Borders: Collaboration and Competition among Nonprofits, Business, and Government, Independent Sector, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  108. Schiff, J., & Weisbrod, B. (1991). Competition between for-profit and nonprofit organizations in commercial activities. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 62, 619–640.Google Scholar
  109. Scott, R. W. (1992). Organizations: Rational, natural, and open systems (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  110. Scott, R. W. (1995). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  111. Scott, R. W. (1998). Organizations: Rational, natural, and open systems (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  112. Scott, R. W., Ruef, M., Mendel, P. J., & Caronna, C. A. (2000). Institutional change and healthcare organizations: From professional dominance to managed care. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  113. Selznick, P. (1966). TVA and the grass roots. New York: Harper Torchbook.Google Scholar
  114. Sills, D. L. (1957). The volunteers: Means and ends in a national organization. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  115. Simon, H. (1957). Administrative behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  116. Simon, J. (1987). The tax treatment of nonprofit organizations: A review of federal and state policies. In W. W. Powell (Ed.), The nonprofit sector: A research handbook (pp. 67–98). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Singh, J. V., House, R. L., & Tucker, D. J. (1986). Organizational change and organizational mortality. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 587–611.Google Scholar
  118. Singh, J. V., & Lumsden, C. J. (1990). Theory and research in organizational ecology. Annual Review of Sociology, 16, 161–195.Google Scholar
  119. Singh, J. V., Tucker, D. J., & House, R. J. (1986). Organizational legitimacy and the liability of newness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 171–193.Google Scholar
  120. Singh, J. V., Tucker, D. J., & Meinhard, A. G. (1991). Institutional change and ecological dynamics. In W. W. Powell & R DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 390–422). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  121. Staber, U. (1989). Organizational foundings in the cooperative sector in Atlantic Canada: An ecological perspective. Organizational Studies, 10, 383–405.Google Scholar
  122. Staw, B. M., Sandelands, L. E., & Dutton, J. E. (1981). Threat-rigidity effects in organizational behaviors: A multilevel approach. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 501–524.Google Scholar
  123. Steinberg, R. (1993). Public policy and the performance of nonprofit organizations: A general framework. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 22, 13–31.Google Scholar
  124. Steinberg, R., & Gray, B. H. (1993). The role of nonprofit enterprise in 1993: Hansmann revisited. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 22(4), 297–316.Google Scholar
  125. Stinchcombe, A. (1965). Organizations and social structure. In J. G. March (Ed.), Handbook of organizations (pp. 142–193). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  126. Stuart, T. E. (1998). Network positions and propensities to collaborate: An investigation of strategic alliance formation in a high-technology industry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, 668–698.Google Scholar
  127. Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20, 571–610.Google Scholar
  128. Swaminathan, A. (1995). The proliferation of specialist organizations in the American wine industry, 1941–1990. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 653–680.Google Scholar
  129. Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  130. Tullock, G. (1966). Information without profit. Papers on Non-Market Decision-making, 1, 141–159.Google Scholar
  131. Uzzi, B. (1997). Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 35–67.Google Scholar
  132. Van de Ven, A. H., & Poole, M. S. (1995). Explaining development and change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20, 510–540.Google Scholar
  133. Warren, R. (1967). The interorganizational field as a focus of investigation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12, 396–419.Google Scholar
  134. Weisbrod, B. A. (1988). The nonprofit economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Weisbrod, B. A. (1998). Institutional form and organizational behavior. In W. W. Powell & E. C. Clemens (Eds.), Private action and the public good (pp. 69–84). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Whetten, D. A. (1980). Sources, responses, and effects of organizational decline. In J. R. Kimberly & R. H. Miles (Eds.), The organizational life cycle (pp. 342–374). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  137. Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and hierarchies: Analysis and antitrust implications. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  138. Williamson, O. E. (1981). The economics of organizations: The transaction cost approach. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 548–577.Google Scholar
  139. Wolpert, J. (1993). Patterns of generosity in American: Who’s holding the safety net? New York: Twentieth Century Fund.Google Scholar
  140. Wolpert, J. (1996). Half a loaf: The limits of charity in the nineties. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.Google Scholar
  141. Zald, M. (1969). Power in organizations. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Zucker, L. (1983). Organizations as institutions. In S. B. Bacharach (Ed.), Research in the sociology of organizations (pp. 1–47). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Galaskiewicz
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Bielefeld
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Indiana UniversityIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations