Middle Arabian Pastoral

  • Juris Zarins
Chapter

Abstract

During the early part of the period, conditions described for the EAP largely apply. However, during the latter part, in gradual stages, dessication set in as the summer monsoon system (Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone [ITCZ]) weakened and moved southward towards its more present location. Bronze Age societies of the MAP were eventually faced with alternative solutions for remaining in the Arabian peninsula. The percentage of insolation and rainfall (from 300 mm-250 mm annually to under 50 mm) decreased annually for most of the region during a 200-300 year period.

Keywords

Clay Depression Sandstone Syria Social Stratification 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggested Readings

  1. Bietak, M. (1984). “Problems of Middle Bronze Age Chronology: New Evidence from Egypt.” American Journal of Archaeology 88:471-485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bietak, M. (1991). “Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 281: 27-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Broshi, M., and R. Gophna (1986). “Middle Bronze Age II Palestine: It’s the Settlements and Population.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 261: 73-90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bunimovitz, S. (1992). “Middle Bronze Age Fortifications in Palestine as a Social Phenomenon.” Tel Aviv 19: 221-234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dever, W. (1987). “Middle Bronze Age: The Zenith of the Urban Canaanite Era.” Biblical Archaeologist 50: 149-177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dever, W. (1990). “‘Hyksos,’ Egyptian Destructions, and the End of the Palestinian Middle Bronze Age.” Levant 22: 75-81.Google Scholar
  7. Dever, W. (1992). “Chronology of Syria-Palestine in the Second Millennium b.c.e.: A Review of Current Issues.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 288: 1-25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dothan, M. (1981). “Sanctuaries Along the Coast of Canaan in the MB Period: Nahariyah.” In Temples and High Places in Biblical Times. Jerusalem: Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 74-81.Google Scholar
  9. Finkelstein, I. (1992). “Middle Bronze Age ‘Fortifications’: A Reflection of Social Organization and Political Formations.” Tel Aviv 19: 201-220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garstang, J. (1932-1933). “Middle Bronze Age. (Jericho; City and Necropolis. III-IV).” Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 19: 12-22, 41-54; .Google Scholar
  11. Garstang, J. (1932-1933). “Middle Bronze Age. (Jericho; City and Necropolis. III-IV).” Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 20: 4-13.Google Scholar
  12. Gerstenblith, P. (1980). “A Reassessment of the Beginning of the Middle Bronze Age in Syria-Palestine.” Bulletin, American Schools of Oriental Research 237: 65-84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Horwitz, L. (1987). “Animal Offerings from Two Middle Bronze Age Tombs.” Israel Exploration Journal 37: 251-255. Google Scholar
  14. Ilan, D. (1995a). “The Dawn of Internationalism-The Middle Bronze Age.” In The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, ed. T. E. Levy. New York: Facts on File, 297-319. Google Scholar
  15. Ilan, D. (1995b). “Mortuary Practices at Tel Dan in the Middle Bronze Age: A Reflection of Canaanite Society and Ideology.” In Archaeology of Death in the Ancient Near East, ed. A. Green and S. Campbell. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 117-139Google Scholar
  16. Ilan, D. (1996). “Middle Bronze Age Painted Pottery from Tel Dan.” Levant 28: 157-172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kempinski, A. (1992). “The Bronze Age.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Israel, ed. A. Ben-Tor. New Haven: Yale University Press, 159-210. Google Scholar
  18. Kenyon, K. (1969). “The Middle and Late Bronze Age Strata at Megiddo.” Levant 1: 25-60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Knapp, A. B. (1992). “Independence and Imperialism: Politicoeconomic Structures in the Bronze Age Levant” In Archaeology, Annales, and Elhnohistory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 83-98.Google Scholar
  20. Magness-Gardiner, B., and S. Falconer (1994). “Community, Polity, and Temple in a Middle Bronze Age Levantine Village.” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 7: 127-164.Google Scholar
  21. Mazar, A. (1990). Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, 10,000-586 b.c.e. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  22. Na’aman, N. (1994). “Hurrians and the End of the Middle Bronze Age in Palestine.” Levant 26: 175-187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Najjar, M. (1992). “Jordan Valley (East Bank) During the Middle Bronze Age in the Light of New Excavations.” Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan 4: 149-153.Google Scholar
  24. Rainey, A. (1996). “Who Is a Canaanite? A Review of the Textual Evidence.” Bulletin, American Schools of Oriental Research 304: 1-15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rosenfeld, A., S. Hani, and M. Dvorachek (1997). “Bronze Alloys from Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age.” Journal of Archaeological Science 24: 857-864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tubb, J. N. (1981). Report on the Middle Bronze Age Painted Pottery. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 98, 2: 403-112.Google Scholar
  27. Ussishkin, D. (1992). “Notes on the Middle Bronze Age Fortifications of Hazor.” Tel Aviv 19: 274-281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yadin, Y. (1967). “The Rise and Fall of Hazor.” In Archaeological Discoveries in the Holy Land. New York: Archaeological Institute of America, 57-66.Google Scholar
  29. Yasur-Landau, A. (1992). “Socio-Political and Demographic Aspects of the Middle Bronze Age Cemetery at Jericho.” Tel Aviv 19: 235-246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juris Zarins
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologySouthwest Missouri State UniversitySpringfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations