The Biobehavioral Legacy of Early Attachment Relationships for Adult Emotional and Interpersonal Functioning

  • Lisa M. Diamond


The attachment theory provides a coherent framework for understanding how individuals’ earliest ties to their caregivers during infancy and childhood influence the quality of their adult romantic bonds. Historically, these linkages have been understood chiefly in terms of individuals’ internalized, psychological models of relationships. Yet, we now know that early attachment experiences shape not only individuals’ cognitions and emotions, but also a range of basic physiological systems involved in stress reactivity and regulation, which influence the development and maintenance of adult attachment bonds. The purpose of this chapter is to review this basic model. Specifically, (1) the quality of early caregiving, in interaction with genetically based temperament and overall stress exposure, calibrates the infant’s basic stress-regulatory systems; (2) the infant’s resulting stress-regulatory profile shapes his/her developing capacity for emotion-regulation and his/her emerging interpersonal skills; (3) by adulthood, this variability in interpersonal and stress-regulatory skills affects the formation and maintenance of adult attachment bonds. Importantly, this is not a biologically determinist model, but rather a differential susceptibilities approach in which children with high physiological reactivity to stress may be disproportionately likely to suffer from poor environments but also disproportionately likely to benefit from highly nurturant environments. Directions for future research on such possibilities are outlined.


Emotion Regulation Autonomic Nervous System Attachment Style Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity Vagal Tone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abercrombie, H. C., Kalin, N. H., Thurow, M. E., Rosenkranz, M. A., & Davidson, R. J. (2003). Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 505–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam, E. K. (2006). Transactions among adolescent trait and state emotion and diurnal and momentary cortisol activity in naturalistic settings. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 664–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  4. Arriaga, X. B., & Rusbult, C. E. (1998). Standing in my partner’s shoes: Partner perspective taking and reactions to accommodative dilemmas. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 927–948.Google Scholar
  5. Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray’s motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beauchaine, T. P. (2002). Autonomic substrates of heart rate reactivity in adolescent males with conduct disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperreactivity disorder. In S. P. Shohov (Ed.), Advances in psychology research (Vol. 18, pp. 83–95). New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  7. Beauchaine, T. P., Katkin, E. S., Strassberg, Z., & Snarr, J. (2001). Disinhibitory psychopathology in male adolescents: Discriminating conduct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through concurrent assessment of multiple autonomic states. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 610–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Mead, H. K. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174–184.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker-Stoll, F., Delius, A., & Scheitenberger, S. (2001). Adolescents’ nonverbal emotional expressions during negotiation of a disagreement with their mothers: An attachment approach. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 344–353.Google Scholar
  10. Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885–908. doi:10.1037/a0017376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2007). For better and for worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 300–304.Google Scholar
  12. Berger, R. D., Saul, J. P., & Cohen, R. J. (1989). Transfer function analysis of autonomic regulation: I. The canine atrial rate response. American Journal of Physiology, 256, H142–H152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., Binkley, P. F., Uchino, B. N., Quigley, K. S., & Fieldstone, A. (1994). Autonomic cardiac control. III. Psychological stress and cardiac response in autonomic space as revealed by pharmacological blockades. Psychophysiology, 31, 599–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Fieldstone, A. (1996). Illusions, arithmetic, and the bidirectional modulation of vagal control of the heart. Biological Psychology, 44, 1–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blandon, A. Y., Calkins, S. D., Keane, S. P., & O’Brien, M. (2010). Contributions of child’s physiology and maternal behavior to children’s trajectories of temperamental reactivity. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1089–1102.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1996). The biopsychosocial model of arousal regulation. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 28, pp. 1–51). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  17. Booth, A., Carver, K., & Granger, D. A. (2000). Biosocial perspectives on the family. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1018–1034.Google Scholar
  18. Boucsein, W. (1991). Electrodermal activity. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  19. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2: Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic.Google Scholar
  20. Bowlby, J. (1977). The making and breaking of affectional bonds: I. Aetiology and psychopathology in the light of attachment theory. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 201–210. doi: 10.1192/bjp.130.3.201. Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Boyce, W. T., Chesney, M., Alkon, A., & Tschann, J. M. (1995). Psychobiologic reactivity to stress and childhood respiratory illnesses: Results of two prospective studies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 411–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brosschot, J. F., & Thayer, J. F. (1998). Anger inhibition, cardiovascular recovery, and vagal function: A model of the link between hostility and cardiovascular disease. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 326–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bubier, J. L., Drabick, D. A. G., & Breiner, T. (2009). Autonomic functioning moderates the relations between contextual factors and externalizing behaviors among inner-city children. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 500–510.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Buss, C., Lord, C., Wadiwalla, M., Hellhammer, D. H., Lupien, S. J., Meaney, M. J., & Pruessner, J. C. (2007). Maternal care modulates the relationship between prenatal risk and hippocampal volume in women but not in men. The Journal Of Neuroscience, 27, 2592–2595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Butler, E. A. (2011). Temporal interpersonal emotion systems: The “TIES” that form relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 367–393. doi:10.1177/1088868311411164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Butner, J., Diamond, L. M., & Hicks, A. M. (2007). Attachment style and two forms of affect coregulation between romantic partners. Personal Relationships, 14, 431–455.Google Scholar
  27. Byrd-Craven, J., Auer, B. J., Granger, D. A., & Massey, A. R. (2012). The father-daughter dance: The relationship between father-daughter relationship quality and daughters’ stress response. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 87–94.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cacioppo, J. T. (1994). Social neuroscience: Autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune responses to stress. Psychophysiology, 31, 113–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cacioppo, J. T., Uchino, B. N., & Berntson, G. G. (1994). Individual differences in the autonomic origins of heart rate reactivity: The psychometrics of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and preejection period. Psychophysiology, 31, 412–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cahill, L., Gorski, L., & Le, K. (2003). Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: Interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding. Learning & Memory, 10, 270–274.Google Scholar
  31. Cairns, R. B., Gariepy, J. L., & Hood, K. E. (1990). Development, microevolution, and social behavior. Psychological Review, 97, 49–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Calkins, S. D. (1997). Cardiac vagal tone indices of temperamental reactivity and behavioral regulation in young children. Developmental Psychobiology, 31, 125–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Calkins, S. D., Smith, C. L., Gill, K. L., & Johnson, M. C. (1998). Maternal interactive style across contexts: Relations to emotional, behavioral, and physiological regulation during toddlerhood. Social Development, 7, 350–369.Google Scholar
  34. Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cicchetti, D., Ackerman, B. P., & Izard, C. E. (1995). Emotions and emotion regulation in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 1–10.Google Scholar
  36. Collins, N. L., Shaver, P. R., & Collins, N. L. (1998). Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1380–1397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Crouter, A. C., & Booth, A. (2006). Romance and sex in adolescence and emerging adulthood: Risks and opportunities. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Sylvers, P., Mead, H., & Chipman-Chacon, J. (2006). Autonomic correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 174–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cummings, E. M., El-Sheikh, C. D., Kouros, C. D., & Keller, P. S. (2007). Children’s skin conductance reactivity as a mechanism of risk in the context of parental depressive symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 436–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. de Kloet, E. R., Sibug, R. M., Helmerhorst, F. M., & Schmidt, M. (2005). Stress, genes and the mechanism of programming the brain for later life. Prenatal Programming Of Behavior, Physiology And Cognition, 29, 271–281.Google Scholar
  41. DeGangi, G. A., DiPietro, J. A., Greenspan, S. I., & Porges, S. W. (1991). Psychophysiological characteristics of the regulatory disordered infant. Infant Behavior and Development, 14, 37–50.Google Scholar
  42. Del Giudice, M., Ellis, B. J., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1562–1592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Demaree, H. A., Robinson, J. L., Everhart, D. E., & Schmeichel, B. J. (2004). Resting RSA is associated with natural and self-regulated responses to negative emotional stimuli. Brain & Cognition, 56, 14–23.Google Scholar
  44. Denham, S. A. (2006). Emotional competence: Implications for social functioning. In J. L. Luby (Ed.), Handbook of preschool mental health: Development, disorders, and treatment (pp. 23–44). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  45. Dewitte, M., De Houwer, J., Goubert, L., & Buysse, A. (2010). A multi-modal approach to the study of attachment-related distress. Biological Psychology, 85, 149–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Diamond, L. M., & Fagundes, C. P. (2008). Developmental perspectives on links between attachment and affect regulation over the lifespan. Advances in Child Behavior and Development, 36, 83–134.Google Scholar
  47. Diamond, L. M., & Fagundes, C. P. (2012). Emotion regulation in close relationships: Implications for social threat and its effects on immunological functioning. In L. Cambell & T. J. Loving (Eds.), Close relationships: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 83–106). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. Diamond, L. M., & Hicks, A. M. (2004). Psychobiological perspectives on attachment: Implications for health over the lifespan. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Adult attachment: New directions and emerging issues (pp. 240–263). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  49. Diamond, L. M., & Hicks, A. M. (2005). Attachment style, current relationship security, and negative emotions: The mediating role of physiological regulation. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 499–518.Google Scholar
  50. Diamond, L. M., Hicks, A. M., & Otter-Henderson, K. A. (2008). Every time you go away: Changes in affect, behavior, and physiology associated with travel-related separations from romantic partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 385–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Diamond, L. M., Hicks, A. M., & Otter-Henderson, K. A. (2011). Individual differences in vagal regulation moderate associations between daily affect and daily couples interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 731–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Diamond, L. M., Fagundes, C. P., & Butterworth, M. R. (2012). Attachment style, vagal tone, and empathy during mother-adolescent interactions. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22, 165–184.Google Scholar
  53. Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 355–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dickson, K. L., Fogel, A., & Messinger, D. (1998). The development of emotion from a social process view. In M. F. Mascolo & S. Griffin (Eds.), What develops in emotional development? (pp. 253–271). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  55. DiCorcia, J. A., & Tronick, E. (2011). Quotidian resilience: Exploring mechanisms that drive resilience from a perspective of everyday stress and coping. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1593–1602. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.04.008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ditzen, B., Schmidt, S., Strauss, B., Nater, U. M., Ehlert, U., & Heinrichs, M. (2008). Adult attachment and social support interact to reduce psychological but not cortisol responses to stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 479–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Morris, A. S. (2002). Regulation, resiliency, and quality of social functioning. Self and Identity, 1, 121–128.Google Scholar
  58. El-Sheikh, M. (2005). The role of emotional responses and physiological reactivity in the marital conflict-child functioning link. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1191–1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. El-Sheikh, M., & Buckhalt, J. A. (2005). Vagal regulation and emotional intensity predict children’s sleep problems. Developmental Psychobiology, 46, 307–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. El-Sheikh, M., & Whitson, S. A. (2006). Longitudinal relations between marital conflict and child adjustment: Vagal regulation as a protective factor. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 30–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. El-Sheikh, M., Keller, P. S., & Erath, S. A. (2007). Marital conflict and risk for child maladjustment over time: Skin conductance level reactivity as a vulnerability factor. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 715–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. El-Sheikh, M., Kouros, C. D., Erath, S., Cummings, E. M., Keller, P., Staton, L., et al. (2009). Marital conflict and children’s externalizing behavior: Interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74, 1–79.Google Scholar
  63. Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary-neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 7–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fabes, R. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1997). Regulatory control in adults’ stress-related responses to daily life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1107–1117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Fabes, R. A., Eisenberg, N., & Eisenbud, L. (1993). Behavioral and physiological correlates of children’s reactions to others in distress. Developmental Psychology, 29, 655–663.Google Scholar
  66. Feeney, J. A. (1999). Adult romantic attachment and couple relationships. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 355–377). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  67. Finkel, E. J., & Campbell, W. K. (2001). Self-control and accommodation in close relationships: An interdependence analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 263–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fogel, A. (2001). A relational perspective on the development of self and emotion. In H. A. Bosma & E. S. Kunnen (Eds.), Identity and emotion: Development through self-organization (pp. 93–119). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Fogel, A., Messinger, D. S., Dickson, K. L., & Hsu, H.-C. (1999). Posture and gaze in early mother-infant communication: Synchronization of developmental trajectories. Developmental Science, 2, 325–332. doi:10.1111/1467-7687.00078.Google Scholar
  70. Fox, N. A. (1989). Psychophysiological correlates of emotional reactivity during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology, 25, 495–504.Google Scholar
  71. Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Frick, P. J., & Morris, A. S. (2004). Temperament and developmental pathways to conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 54–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Friedman, B. H., & Thayer, J. F. (1998). Autonomic balance revisited: Panic anxiety and heart rate variability. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 44, 133–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Garralda, M. E., Connell, J., & Taylor, D. C. (1991). Psychophysiological anomalies in children with emotional and conduct disorders. Psychological Medicine: A. Journal of Research in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences, 21, 947–957.Google Scholar
  75. Gerra, G., Zaimovic, A., Zambelli, U., Timpano, M., Reali, N., Bernasconi, S., & Brambilla, F. (2000). Neuroendocrine responses to psychological stress in adolescents with anxiety disorder. Neuropsychobiology, 42, 82–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gottlieb, G. (1991). Experiential canalization of behavioral development: Theory. Developmental Psychology, 27, 4–13.Google Scholar
  77. Gottman, J. M. (1993). The roles of conflict engagement, escalation, and avoidance in marital interaction: A longitudinal view of 5 types of couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 6–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1992). Marital processes predictive of later dissolution: Behavior, physiology, and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 221–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gross, J. J. (1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, future. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 551–573.Google Scholar
  80. Gunnar, M. R. (1998). Quality of early care and buffering of neuroendocrine stress reactions: Potential effects on the developing human brain. Preventive Medicine, 27, 208–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gunnar, M. R. (2003). Integrating neuroscience and psychological approaches in the study of early experiences. In J. A. King, C. F. Ferris, & I. I. Lederhendler (Eds.), Roots of mental illness in children (pp. 238–247). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  82. Gunnar, M. R., & Donzella, B. (2002). Social regulation of cortisol levels in early human development. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 199–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gunnar, M. R., & Quevedo, K. (2007). The neurobiology of stress and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 145–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Halford, W. K., Lizzio, A., Wilson, K. L., & Occhipinti, S. (2007). Does working at your marriage help? Couple relationship self-regulation and satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 185–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hazan, C., & Zeifman, D. (1994). Sex and the psychological tether. In D. Perlman & K. Bartholomew (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships: A research annual (Vol. 5, pp. 151–177). London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  86. Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1999). The impact of early adverse experiences on brain systems involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and affective disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1509–1522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: Preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 1023–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Mletzko, T., Miller, A. H., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2008). The link between childhood trauma and depression: Insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 693–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Helm, J. L., Sbarra, D., & Ferrer, E. (2012). Assessing cross-partner associations in physiological responses via coupled oscillator models. Emotion, 12, 748–762. doi:10.1037/a0025036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hertsgaard, L., Gunnar, M. R., Erickson, M. F., & Nachmias, M. (1995). Adrenocortical responses to the strange situation in infants with disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships. Child Development, 66, 1100–1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hessler, D. M., & Katz, L. F. (2007). Children’s emotion regulation: Self-report and physiological response to peer provocation. Developmental Psychology, 43, 27–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hicks, A. M., & Diamond, L. M. (2008). How was your day? Couples’ affect when telling and hearing daily events. Personal Relationships, 15, 205–228.Google Scholar
  93. Hofer, M. A. (1984). Relationships as regulators: A psychobiologic perspective on bereavement. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 183–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Horsten, M., Ericson, M., Perski, A., Wamala, S. P., Schenck-Gustafsson, K., & Orth-Gomér, K. (1999). Psychosocial factors and heart rate variability in healthy women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 49–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hubbard, J. A., Smithmyer, C. M., Ramsden, S. R., Parker, E. H., Flanagan, K. D., Dearing, K. F., et al. (2002). Observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children’s anger: Relations to reactive versus proactive aggression. Child Development, 73, 1101–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hubbard, J. A., Parker, E. H., Ramsden, S. R., Flanagan, K. D., Relyea, N., Dearing, K. F., et al. (2004). The relations among observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children’s anger. Social Development, 13, 14–39.Google Scholar
  97. Huffman, L. C., Bryan, Y. E., del Carmen, R., Pedersen, F. A., Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A., & Porges, S. W. (1998). Infant temperament and cardiac vagal tone: Assessments at twelve weeks of age. Child Development, 69, 624–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kagan, J., Resnick, A., & Snidman, N. (1987). The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition in children. Child Development, 58, 1459–1473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Katz, L. F. (2007). Domestic violence and vagal reactivity to peer provocation. Biological Psychology, 74, 154–164.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kettunen, J., Ravaja, N., Naeaetaenen, P., & Keltikangas-Jaervinen, L. (2000). The relationship of respiratory sinus arrhythmia to the co activation of autonomic and facial responses during the Rorschach test. Psychophysiology, 37, 242–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kirschbaum, C., Wust, S., Faig, H. G., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1992). Heritability of cortisol responses to human corticotropin-releasing hormone, ergometry, and psychological stress in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 75, 1526–1530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kirschbaum, C., Prussner, J. C., Stone, A. A., Federenko, I., Gaab, J., Lintz, D., et al. (1995). Persistent high cortisol responses to repeated psychological stress in a subpopulation of healthy men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 468–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kobak, R. R., Cole, H. E., Ferenz-Gillies, R., Fleming, W. S., & Gamble, W. (1993). Attachment and emotion regulation during mother-teen problem solving: A control theory analysis. Child Development, 64, 231–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Koole, S. L. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition & Emotion, 23, 4–41.Google Scholar
  105. Laurent, H., & Powers, S. (2007). Emotion regulation in emerging adult couples: Temperament, attachment, and HPA response to conflict. Biological Psychology, 76, 61–71.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lewis, M. D., Lamm, C., Segalowitz, S. J., Stieben, J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2006). Neurophysiological correlates of emotion regulation in children and adolescents. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 430–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Loney, B. R., Butler, M. A., Lima, E. N., Counts, C. A., & Eckel, L. A. (2006). The relation between salivary cortisol, callous-unemotional traits, and conduct problems in an adolescent non-referred sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 30–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lorber, M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 531–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Luecken, L. J. (1998). Childhood attachment and loss experiences affect adult cardiovascular and cortisol function. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 765–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Luecken, L. J., Rodriguez, A. P., & Appelhans, B. M. (2005). Cardiovascular stress responses in young adulthood associated with family-of-origin relationship experiences. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 514–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Luecken, L. J., Kraft, A., Appelhans, B. M., & Enders, C. (2009). Emotional and cardiovascular sensitization to daily stress following childhood parental loss. Developmental Psychology, 45, 296–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lupien, S., Lecours, A. R., Lussier, I., Schwartz, G., Nair, M. P., & Meaney, M. J. (1994). Basal cortisol levels and cognitive deficits in human aging. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 2893–2903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Marshall, A. D., Robinson, L. R., & Azar, S. T. (2011). Cognitive and emotional contributors to intimate partner violence perpetration following trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 586–590.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Maunder, R. G., Lancee, W. J., Nolan, R. P., Hunter, J. J., & Tannenbaum, D. W. (2006). The relationship of attachment insecurity to subjective stress and autonomic function during standardized acute stress in healthy adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. McEwen, B. S., Angulo, J., Cameron, H., Chao, H. M., Daniels, D., Gannon, M. N., et al. (1992). Paradoxical effects of adrenal steroids on the brain: Protection versus degeneration. Biological Psychiatry, 31, 177–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. McNulty, J. K., & Hellmuth, J. C. (2008). Emotion regulation and intimate partner violence in newlyweds. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 794–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Mikulincer, M., & Florian, V. (2004). Attachment style and affect regulation: Implications for coping with stress and mental health. In M. B. Brewer & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Applied social psychology (pp. 28–49). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  118. Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2008). Adult attachment and affect regulation. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 503–531). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  119. Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., & Pereg, D. (2003). Attachment theory and affect regulation: The dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 77–102.Google Scholar
  120. Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Zhou, E. S. (2007). If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 25–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Parker, K. J. (2011). Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: Moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 959–997.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mills-Koonce, W. R., Garrett-Peters, P., Barnett, M., Granger, D. A., Blair, C., & Cox, M. J. (2011). Father contributions to cortisol responses in infancy and toddlerhood. Developmental Psychology, 47, 388–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Moore, G. A., & Calkins, S. D. (2004). Infants’ vagal regulation in the still-face pradigm is related to dyadic coordination of mother-infant interaction. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1068–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Movius, H. L., & Allen, J. J. B. (2005). Cardiac vagal tone, defensiveness, and motivational style. Biological Psychology, 68, 147–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126, 247–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Nachmias, M., Gunnar, M. R., Mangelsdorf, S., Parritz, R. H., & Buss, K. (1996). Behavioral inhibition and stress reactivity: The moderating role of attachment security. Child Development, 67, 508–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Neumann, S. A., Sollers, J. J., Thayer, J. F., & Waldstein, S. R. (2004). Alexithymia predicts attenuated autonomic reactivity, but prolonged recovery to anger recall in young women. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 53, 183–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Nolte, T., Guiney, J., Fonagy, P., Mayes, L. C., & Luyten, P. (2012). Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: An attachment-based developmental framework. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 1–21.Google Scholar
  129. Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2007). The neural architecture of emotion regulation. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 87–109). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  130. Oitzl, M. S., Champagne, D. L., van der Veen, R., & de Kloet, E. R. (2010). Brain development under stress: Hypotheses of glucocorticoid actions revisited. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 34, 853–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Oskis, A., Loveday, C., Hucklebridge, F., Thorn, L., & Clow, A. (2011). Anxious attachment style and salivary cortisol dysregulation in healthy female children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 111–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Oveis, C., Cohen, A. B., Gruber, J., Haidt, J., Keltner, D., & Shiota, M. N. (2009). Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with tonic positive emotionality. Emotion, 9, 265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Pieper, S., Brosschot, J. F., van der Leeden, R., & Thayer, J. F. (2007). Cardiac effects of momentary access to worry episodes and stressful events. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 901–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Piha, S. J., Ronnemaa, T., & Koskenvuo, M. (1994). Autonomic nervous system function in identical twins discordant for obesity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 18, 547–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Pope, M. K., & Smith, T. W. (1991). Cortisol excretion in high and low cynically hostile men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 386–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Porges, S. W. (1991). Vagal tone: An autonomic mediator of affect. In J. Garber & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 111–128). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Porges, S. W. (1992). Autonomic regulation and attention. In B. A. Campbell, H. Hayne, & R. Richardson (Eds.), Attention and information processing in infants and adults (pp. 201–223). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  138. Porges, S. W. (2001). The polyvagal theory: Phylogenetic substrates of a social nervous system. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 42, 123–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Porges, S. W. (2003). The polyvagal theory: Phylogenetic contributions to social behavior. Physiology & Behavior, 79, 503–513.Google Scholar
  140. Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A., & Maiti, A. K. (1994). Vagal tone and the physiological regulation of emotion. In N. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 59, (2–3, Serial no. 240), 167–186.Google Scholar
  141. Porter, C. L. (2003). Coregulation in mother-infant dyads: Links to infants’ cardiac vagal tone. Psychological Reports, 92, 307–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Porter, C. L., Wouden-Miller, M., Silva, S. S., & Porter, A. E. (2003). Marital harmony and conflict: Linked to infants’ emotional regulation and cardiac vagal tone. Infancy, 4, 297–307.Google Scholar
  143. Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 1–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Powers, S. I., Pietromonaco, P. R., Gunlicks, M., & Sayer, A. (2006). Dating couples’ attachment styles and patterns of cortisol reactivity and recovery in response to a relationship conflict. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 613–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Propper, C., Moore, G. A., Mills-Koonce, W. R., Halpern, C. T., Hill-Soderlund, A. L., Calkins, S. D., et al. (2008). Gene-environment contributions to the development of infant vagal reactivity: The interaction of dopamine and maternal sensitivity. Child Development, 79, 1377–1394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Quirin, M., Pruessner, J. C., & Kuhl, J. (2008). HPA system regulation and adult attachment anxiety: Individual differences in reactive and awakening cortisol. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 581–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 years and criminality at age 24 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1003–1007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Reed, R. G., Randall, A. K., Post, J. H., & Butler, E. A. (2012). Partner influence and in-phase versus anti-phase physiological linkage in romantic couples. International Journal of Psychophysiology. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.08.009.Google Scholar
  149. Repetti, R. L., Taylor, S. E., & Seeman, T. E. (2002). Risky families: Family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 330–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Robins, R. W., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2000). Two personalities, one relationship: Both partners’ personality traits shape the quality of their relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 251–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Roger, D., & Najarian, B. (1998). The relationship between emotional rumination and cortisol secretion under stress. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 531–538.Google Scholar
  152. Rusbult, C. E., Verette, J., Whitney, G. A., Slovik, L. F., & Lipkus, I. (1991). Accommodation processes in close relationships: Theory and preliminary empirical evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 53–78.Google Scholar
  153. Rusbult, C. E., Bissonnette, V. L., Arriaga, X. B., Cox, C. L., & Bradbury, T. N. (1998). Accommodation processes during the early years of marriage. In T. N. Bradbury (Ed.), The developmental course of marital dysfunction (pp. 74–113). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Sanchez, M. M., Ladd, C. O., & Plotsky, P. M. (2001). Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: Evidence from rodent and primate models. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 419–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, L. M., & Munck, A. U. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews, 21, 55–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Saul, J. P. (1990). Beat-to-beat variations of heart rate reflect modulation of cardiac autonomic outflow. News in Psychological Science, 5, 32–37.Google Scholar
  157. Saxbe, D., & Repetti, R. L. (2010). For better or worse? Coregulation of couples’ cortisol levels and mood states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 92–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Sbarra, D. A., & Hazan, C. (2008). Coregulation, dysregulation, self-regulation: An integrative analysis and empirical agenda for understanding adult attachment, separation, loss, and recovery. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12, 141–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Scarpa, A., & Raine, A. (1997). Psychophysiology of anger and violent behavior. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20, 375–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Schiefelbein, V. L., & Susman, E. J. (2006). Cortisol levels and longitudinal cortisol change as predictors of anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 26, 397–413.Google Scholar
  161. Schoebi, D. (2008). The coregulation of daily affect in marital relationships. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 595–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Schore, A. N. (1996). Effects of a secure attachment relationship on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 269–276.Google Scholar
  163. Segerstrom, S. C., & Nes, L. S. (2007). Heart rate variability reflects self-regulatory strength, effort, and fatigue. Psychological Science, 18, 275–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Semin, G. R., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). Grounding social cognition: Synchronization, coordination, and co-regulation. In G. R. Semin & E. R. Smith (Eds.), Embodied grounding: Social, cognitive, affective, and neuroscientific approaches. (pp. 119–147). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Shaver, P. R., & Mikulincer, M. (2002). Attachment-related psychodynamics. Attachment & Human Development, 4, 133–161.Google Scholar
  166. Shaver, P. R., & Mikulincer, M. (2007). Adult attachment strategies and the regulation of emotion. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 446–465). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  167. Shorey, R. C., Brasfield, H., Febres, J., & Stuart, G. L. (2011a). An examination of the association between difficulties with emotion regulation and dating violence perpetration. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 20, 870–885.Google Scholar
  168. Shorey, R. C., Cornelius, T. L., & Idema, C. (2011b). Trait anger as a mediator of difficulties with emotion regulation and female-perpetrated psychological aggression. Violence and Victims, 26, 271–282.Google Scholar
  169. Siegel, D. J. (2001). Toward an interpersonal neurobiology of the developing mind: Attachment relationships, “mindsight,” and neural integration. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 67–94.Google Scholar
  170. Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2003). Adolescents’ emotion regulation in daily fife: Links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior. Child Development, 74, 1869–1880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., Minda, O. M., & Grich, J. (2002). Working models of attachment, support giving, and support seeking in a stressful situation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 598–608.Google Scholar
  172. Sloan, R. P., Shapiro, P. A., Bagiella, E., Boni, S. M., Paik, M., Bigger, J. T. Jr., et al. (1994). Effect of mental stress throughout the day on cardiac autonomic control. Biological Psychology, 37, 89–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Snidman, N. (1989). Behavioral inhibition and sympathetic influence on the cardiovascular system. In J. S. Reznick (Ed.), Perspectives on behavioral inhibition (pp. 51–70). Chicago: University of Chicago press.Google Scholar
  174. Snieder, H., Boomsma, D. I., Van Doornen, L. J. P., & De Geus, E. J. C. (1997). Heritability of respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Dependency on task and respiration rate. Psychophysiology, 34, 317–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Spangler, G., & Grossman, K. E. (1993). Biobehavioral organization in securely and insecurely attached infants. Child Development, 64, 1439–1450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Spangler, G., Schieche, M., Ilg, U., Maier, U., & Ackerman, C. (1994). Maternal sensitivity as an external organizer for biobehavioral regulation in infancy. Developmental Psychobiology, 27, 425–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Spear, J. F., Kronhaus, K. D., Moore, E. N., & Kline, R. P. (1979). The effect of brief vagal stimulation on the isolated rabbit sinus node. Circulation Research, 44, 75–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Stansbury, K., & Gunnar, M. R. (1994). Adrenocortical activity and emotion regulation. In N. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of The Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 59, (2–3, Serial no. 240) 108–134.Google Scholar
  179. Taylor, S. E., Karlamangla, A. S., Friedman, E. M., & Seeman, T. E. (2011). Early environment affects neuroendocrine regulation in adulthood. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 244–251.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Teicher, M. H., Andersen, S. L., Polcari, A., Anderson, C. M., Navalta, C. P., & Kim, D. M. (2003). The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 33–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Thayer, J. F., & Lane, R. D. (2000). A model of neurovisceral integration in emotion regulation and dysregulation. Journal of Affective Disorders, 61, 201–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1978). Interpersonal relations: A theory of interdependence. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  183. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. In N. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development Vol. 59, (2–3, Serial no. 240) pp. 225–252.Google Scholar
  184. Trinke, S. J., & Bartholomew, K. (1997). Hierarchies of attachment relationships in young adulthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 14, 603–625.Google Scholar
  185. Tronick, E. (2007). The neurobehavioral and social-emotional development of infants and children. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  186. Tronick, E., & Beeghly, M. (2011). Infants’ meaning-making and the development of mental health problems. American Psychologist, 66, 107–119. doi:10.1037/a0021631.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. van Bakel, H. J. A., & Riksen-Walraven, J. M. (2004). Stress reactivity in 15-month-old infants: Links with infant temperament, cognitive competence, and attachment security. Developmental Psychobiology, 44, 157–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Vella, E. J., & Friedman, B. H. (2007). Autonomic characteristics of defensive hostility: Reactivity and recovery to active and passive stressors. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 66, 95–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Vohs, K. D., Baumeister, R. F., & Ciarocco, N. J. (2005). Self-regulation and self-presentation: Regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and effortful self-presentation depletes regulatory resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 632–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Weems, C. F., Zakem, A. H., Costa, N. M., Cannon, M. F., & Watts, S. E. (2005). Physiological response and childhood anxiety: Association with symptoms of anxiety disorders and cognitive bias. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 712–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations