A Dialectic Integration of Development for the Study of Psychopathology



The field of developmental psychopathology was initially focused on efforts to understand the etiology of adult mental disorders by studying children and their disorders. However, this effort produced unanticipated changes in our understanding of pathology, individual development, and the role of social context. Among these modifications were the blurring of the division between mental illness and mental health, the need to attend to patterns of adaptation rather than personality traits, and the powerful influences of the social world on individual development. Current developmental views place deviancy in the dynamic relation between individuals and their contexts. From another perspective, the history of developmental psychopathology is an example of universal dialectical processes where action in the world, that is, research on mental illness, produces results that contradict the models that inspired that action, that is, linear models of individual psychopathology. Dialectical developmental processes are evident as we trace how patterns of adaptation by researchers, expressed in theoretical models and empirical paradigms, increasingly have come to match the complexities of human mental health and illness.


Mental Health Conduct Disorder Developmental Psychopathology Promotive Factor Transactional Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Berkson, G. (1978). Social ecology and ethology of mental retardation. In G. P. Sackett (Ed.), Observing behavior, Vol. I: Theory and applications in mental retardation (pp. 403–409). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bornstein, M. H. (2009). Toward a model of culture-parent–child transactions. In A. Sameroff (Ed.), The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other (pp. 139–161). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I., Harrington, H., et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chandler, M. J., Lalonde, C. E., Sokol, B. W., & Hallett, D. (2003). Personal persistence, identity development, and suicide: A study of native and non-native North American adolescents. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68(2, Series No. 273)Google Scholar
  6. Cicchetti, D. (1989). Developmental psychopathology: Some thought on its evolution. Development & Psychopathology, 1, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Compas, B. E., & Hammen, C. L. (1994). Child and adolescent depression: Covariation and comorbidity in development. In R. J. Haggerty, L. R. Sherrod, N. Garmezy, & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, risk, and resilience in children and adolescents: Processes, mechanisms, and interventions (pp. 225–267). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (1996). Developmental psychopathology. In R. B. Cairns, G. H. Elder Jr., & E. J. Costello (Eds.), Developmental science (pp. 168–189). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cytryn, L., & McKnew, D. H. (1974). Factors influencing the changing clinical expression of the depressive process in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 879–881.Google Scholar
  10. Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Miller, S., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2009). A dynamic cascade model of the development of substance-use onset. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74(3), 1–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., et al. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48, 90–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elder, G. H., Jr., Johnson, M. K., & Crosnoe, R. (2003). The emergence and development of life course theory. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 3–19). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eldredge, N., & Gould, S. J. (1972). Punctuated equilibria: An alternative to phyletic gradualism. In T. J. M. Schopf (Ed.), Models in paleobiology. San Francisco, CA: Freeman Cooper.Google Scholar
  14. Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Ellis, J. E., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 7–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ericsson, K. A., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49(8), 725–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fiese, B. H., & Winter, M. A. (2009). The dynamics of family chaos and its relation to children’s socio-emotional well being. In G. W. Evans & T. D. Wachs (Eds.), Chaos and its influence on children’s development: An ecological perspective (pp. 55–76). Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  18. Flemming, J. E., & Offord, D. R. (1990). Epidemiology of childhood depressive disorders: A critical review. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 571–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., Cook, T. D., Eccles, J., Elder, G. H., Jr., & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to make it: Urban families and adolescent success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Garmezy, N. (1985). Stress-resistant children: The search for protective factors. In J. E. Stevenson (Ed.), Recent research in developmental psychopathology (pp. 213–233). Oxfort: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., & Cole, R. (2003). Academic growth curve trajectories from first to twelfth grades: Effects of multiple social risk and preschool child factors. Developmental Psychology, 39, 777–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The academic achievement of African American students during early adolescence: An examination of multiple risk, promotive, and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30(3), 367–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keller, M. B., Beardslee, W., Lavori, P. W., Wunder, J., Dils, D. L., & Samuelson, H. (1988). Course of major depression in non-referred adolescents: A retrospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 15, 235–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kessen, W. (1979). The American child and other cultural inventions. American Psychologist, 34, 815–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Loeber, R., Wung, P., Keenan, K., Giroux, B., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., et al. (1993). Developmental pathways in disruptive child behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 103–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence: A review of research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 6–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Main, M., & Goldwyn, R. (1984). Predicting rejection of their infant from mother’s representation of her own experience: Implications for the abused and abusing intergenerational cycle. Child Abuse and Neglect, 8, 203–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Masten, A. S., & Garmezy, N. (1985). Risk, vulnerability, and protective factors in developmental psychopathology. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 1–52). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maxwell, L. E. (2009). Chaos outside the home: The school environment. In G. W. Evans & T. D. Wachs (Eds.), Chaos and its influence on children’s development: An ecological perspective (pp. 117–136). Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  31. McKenzie, M. J., & McDonough, S. C. (2009). Transactions between perception and reality: Maternal beliefs and infant regulatory behavior. In A. Sameroff (Ed.), The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other (pp. 35–54). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meaney, M. J. (2010). Epigenetics and the biological definition of gene X environment interactions. Child Development, 81(1), 41–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morrison, F. J., & Connor, C. M. (2009). The transition to school: Child instruction transactions in learning to read. In A. Sameroff (Ed.), The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other (pp. 183–201). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  34. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2004). Trajectories of physical aggression from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69(4), Whole No. 278.Google Scholar
  35. Nichols, P. (1984). Familial mental retardation. Behavior Genetics, 14, 161–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Patterson, G. R. (1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. American Psychologist, 41, 432–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Raver, C. C. (2004). Placing emotional self-regulation in sociocultural and socioeconomic contexts. Child Development, 75, 346–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Robins, L. (1978). Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behaviour: Replications from longitudinal studies. Psychological Medicine, 8, 611–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rothbart, M. K. (1981). Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Development, 52, 569–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rutter, M. (1987). Continuities and discontinuities from infancy. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (2nd ed., pp. 1256–1296). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Rutter, M., & Garmezy, N. (1983). Development psychopathology. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology: Vol. 4. Social and personality development (pp. 775–911). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Rutter’s, M. (1979). Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. In M. W. Kent & J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology Vol. 3: Social competence in children (pp. 49–74). Hanover, NH: University of New England Press.Google Scholar
  43. Sameroff, A. J. (1995). General systems theories and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Manual of developmental psychopathology (Vol. 1, pp. 659–695). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Sameroff, A. J. (2006). Identifying risk and protective factors for healthy youth development. In A. Clarke-Stewart & J. Dunn, J. Families count: Effects on child and adolescent development (pps. 53–76). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Sameroff, A. J. (Ed.). (2009). The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  46. Sameroff, A. J. (2010). A unified theory of development: A dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child Development, 81, 6–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sameroff, A. J., Bartko, W. T., Baldwin, A., Baldwin, C., & Seifer, R. (1998). Family and social influences on the development of child competence. In M. Lewis & C. Feiring (Eds.), Families, risk, and competence (pp. 1161–1183). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  48. Sameroff, A. J., & Chandler, M. J. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In F. D. Horowitz, M. Hetherington, S. Scarr-Salapatek, & G. Siegel (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 4, pp. 187–244). Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  49. Sameroff, A. J., & Emde, R. N. (Eds.). (1989). Relationship disturbances in early childhood: A developmental approach. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  50. Sameroff, A. J., & Fiese, B. H. (2000). Transactional regulation: The developmental ecology of early intervention. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Early intervention: A handbook of theory, practice, and analysis (2nd ed., pp. 135–159). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Baldwin, A. L., & Baldwin, C. A. (1993). Stability of intelligence from preschool to adolescence: The influence of social and family risk factors. Child Development, 64, 80–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Bartko, W. T. (1997). Environmental perspectives on adaptation during childhood and adolescence. In S. S. Luthar, J. A. Barack, D. Cicchetti, & J. Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on risk and disorder. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Zax, M. (1982). Early development of children at risk for emotional disorder. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 47(7, Serial No. 199).Google Scholar
  54. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Zax, M., & Barocas, R. (1987). Early indicators of developmental risk: The Rochester longitudinal study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 383–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sameroff, A. J., & Zax, M. (1973). Neonatal characteristics of offspring of schizophrenic and neurotically-depressed mothers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 157, 191–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Seifer, R., Sameroff, A. J., Barrett, L. C., & Krafchuk, E. (1994). Infant temperament measured by multiple observations and mother report. Child Development, 65, 1478–1490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sroufe, L. A. (1990). Considering the normal and abnormal together: Te essence of developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 335–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E. A., & Collins, W. A. (2005). The development of the person: The Minnesota study of risk and adaptation from birth to adulthood. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  59. Sroufe, L. A., & Rutter, M. (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stattin, H., & Magnusson, D. (1991). Stability and change in criminal behaviour up to age 30. British Journal of Criminology, 31(4), 327–346.Google Scholar
  61. Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Zhang, Q., van Kammen, W., & Maguin, E. (1993). The double edge of protective and risk factors for delinquency: Interrelations and developmental patterns. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 683–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Visscher, P. M. (2008). Sizing up human height variation. Nature Genetics, 40(5), 489–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Weisner, T. S. (2002). Ecocultural understanding of children’s developmental pathways. Human Development, 45, 275–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Worthman, C. M. (1993). Biocultural interactions in human development. In M. E. Pereira & L. A. Banks (Eds.), Juvenile primates: Life history, development, and behavior (pp. 339–358). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Zigler, E., & Hodapp, R. M. (1986). Understanding mental retardation. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations