Peer Relationships and the Development of Psychopathology

Chapter

Abstract

Merely a half century ago, research examining contextual correlates of youth psychopathology focused almost exclusively on parental factors (Hartup, 1970). Several influential initial studies revealed that children and young adults experiencing significant emotional difficulties could be identified by their troubling experiences with peers earlier in childhood (e.g., Roff, 1961). Soon after, follow-forward studies revealed that children who were disliked by their peers appeared to be at greater risk for a host of later negative outcomes, including delinquent or criminal activity and various symptoms of psychopathology (e.g., Coie, Terry, Lenox, Lochman, & Hyman, 1995). These findings contributed to an emphasis on understanding how children’s peer status, or acceptance/rejection among peers, may be associated with later psychopathology. Over time, researchers began to take interest in developmental antecedents or determinants of children’s peer status and in more broadly understanding the nature of early childhood peer experiences. Soon, an awareness of other types of peer relationships began to dominate researchers’ interest. For instance, studies revealed that youths’ success in dyadic relationships was orthogonal to their status within the overall peer group (Hartup, 1996). Children’s formation, maintenance, and quality of friendships soon became a focus of research; associations among aspects of friendships and adjustment also proliferated.

Keywords

Depression Cortisol Rosen Haas Malone 

References

  1. Allen, J. P., Porter, M. R., McFarland, F. C., Marsh, P., & McElhaney, K. (2005). The two faces of adolescents’ success with peers: Adolescent popularity, social adaptation, and deviant behavior. Child Development, 76(3), 747–760. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00875.x.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Berndt, T. J., & McCandless, M. A. (2009). Methods for investigating children’s relationships with friends. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 63–81). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bierman, K., & Wargo, J. B. (1995). Predicting the longitudinal course associated with aggressive-rejected, aggressive (nonrejected), and rejected (nonaggressive) status. Development and Psychopathology, 7(4), 669–682. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400006775.Google Scholar
  4. Blachman, D. R., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Patterns of friendship among girls with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(6), 625–640. doi: 10.1023/A:1020815814973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Borelli, J. L., & Prinstein, M. J. (2006). Reciprocal, longitudinal associations among adolescents’ negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, and peer relations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(2), 159–169. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-9010-y.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Boulton, M. J., Trueman, M., Chau, C., Whitehand, C., & Amatya, K. (1999). Concurrent and longitudinal links between friendship and peer victimization: Implications for befriending interventions. Journal of Adolescence, 22(4), 461–466. doi: 10.1006/jado.1999.0240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boulton, M. J., & Underwood, K. (1992). Bully/victim problems among middle school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1), 73–87. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.1992.tb01000.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brechwald, W. A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2011). Beyond homophily: A decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 166–179. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00721.x.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brendgen, M., & Boivin, M. (2009). Genetic factors in children’s peer relations. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 455–472). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  10. Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F., Girard, A., Dionne, G., & Pérusse, D. (2008). Gene-environment interaction between peer victimization and child aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 20(2), 455–471. doi: 10.1017/S0954579408000229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Bukowski, W. M., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R., & Boivin, M. (2013). Can friends protect genetically vulnerable children from depression? Development and Psychopathology., 25, 277–289. doi: 10.1017/S0954579412001058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burk, W. J., Steglich, C. E. G., & Snijders, T. A. B. (2007). Beyond dyadic interdependence: Actor-oriented models for co-evolving social networks and individual behaviors. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(4), 397–404. doi: 10.1177/0165025407077762.Google Scholar
  13. Burk, W. J., Van der Vorst, H., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2012). Alcohol use and friendship dynamics: Selection and socialization in early-, middle-, and late-adolescent peer networks. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(1), 89–98. Retrieved from http://www.jsad.com/.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Burks, V., Dodge, K. A., & Price, J. M. (1995). Models of internalizing outcomes of early rejection. Development and Psychopathology, 7(4), 683–695. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400006787.Google Scholar
  15. Card, N. A., & Little, T. D. (2006). Proactive and reactive aggression in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis of differential relations with psychosocial adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30(5), 466–480. doi: 10.1177/0165025406071904.Google Scholar
  16. Caplan, M. Z., & Hay, D. F. (1989). Preschoolers’ responses to peers’ distress and beliefs about bystander intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30(2), 231-242. doi:  10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00237.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cardoos, S. L., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2011). Friendship as protection from peer victimization for girls with and without ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(7), 1035–1045. doi: 10.1007/s10802-011-9517-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, X., Chung, J., & Hsiao, C. (2009). Peer interactions and relationships from a cross-cultural perspective. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 432–451). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  19. Cillessen, A. H., & Mayeux, L. (2004). From censure to reinforcement: Developmental changes in the association between aggression and social status. Child Development, 75(1), 147–163. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00660.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cillessen, A. H., Van Ijzendoorn, H. W., Van Lieshout, C. F., & Hartup, W. W. (1992). Heterogeneity among peer-rejected boys: Subtypes and stabilities. Child Development, 63(4), 893–905. doi: 10.2307/1131241.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, G. L., & Prinstein, M. J. (2006). Peer contagion of aggression and health-risk behavior among adolescent males: An experimental investigation of effects on public conduct and private attitudes. Child Development, 77(4), 967–983. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00913.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1983). Continuities and changes in children’s social status: A five-year longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29(3), 261–282. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/mpq/.Google Scholar
  23. Coie, J. D., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1983). A behavioral analysis of emerging social status in boys’ groups. Child Development, 54(6), 1400–1416. doi: 10.2307/1129803.Google Scholar
  24. Coie, J. D., Terry, R., Lenox, K., Lochman, J. E., & Hyman, C. (1995). Childhood peer rejection and aggression as predictors of stable patterns of adolescent disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 7(4), 697–713. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400006799.Google Scholar
  25. Cole, S. W. (2009). Social regulation of human gene expression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(3), 132–137. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01623.x.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Crick, N. R., & Bigbee, M. A. (1998). Relational and overt forms of peer victimization: A multiinformant approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 337–347. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.66.2.337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 74–101. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74.Google Scholar
  28. Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1996). Children’s treatment by peers: Victims of relational and overt aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 8(2), 367–380. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400007148.Google Scholar
  29. De Los Reyes, A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2004). Applying depression-distortion hypotheses to the assessment of peer victimization in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(2), 325–335. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Denham, S. A., McKinley, M. J., Couchoud, E. A., & Holt, R. (1990). Emotional and behavioral predictors of preschool peer ratings. Child Development, 61(4), 1145–1152. doi: 10.2307/1130882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dishion, T. J., Capaldi, D., Spracklen, K. M., & Li, F. (1995). Peer ecology of male adolescent drug use. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 803–824. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400006854.Google Scholar
  32. Dishion, T. J., Eddy, M. J., Haas, E., Li, F., & Spracklen, K. (1997). Friendships and violent behavior during adolescence. Social Development, 6, 207–223. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.1997.tb00102.x.Google Scholar
  33. Dishion, T. J., Nelson, S. E., Winter, C. E., & Bullock, B. (2004). Adolescent friendship as a dynamic system: Entropy and deviance in the etiology and course of male antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(6), 651–663. doi: 10.1023/B:JACP.0000047213.31812.21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dishion, T. J., & Owen, L. D. (2002). A longitudinal analysis of friendships and substance use: Bidirectional influence from adolescence to adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 38(4), 480–491. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.38.4.480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., & Griesler, P. C. (1994). Peer adaptations in the development of antisocial behavior: A confluence model. In L. Huesmann (Ed.), Aggressive behavior: Current perspectives (pp. 61–95). New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  36. Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M. M., & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school, and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with antisocial peers. Developmental Psychology, 27(1), 172–180. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.27.1.172.Google Scholar
  37. Dishion, T. J., Véronneau, M., & Myers, M. W. (2010). Cascading peer dynamics underlying the progression from problem behavior to violence in early to late adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 603–619. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 250(4988), 1678–1683. doi: 10.1126/science.2270481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(6), 1146–1158. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Malone, P. S., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2008). Testing an idealized dynamic cascade model of the development of serious violence in adolescence. Child Development, 79(6), 1907–1927. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01233.x.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dodge, K. A., Lansford, J. E., Burks, V., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Fontaine, R., et al. (2003). Peer rejection and social information processing factors in the development of aggressive behavior problems in children. Child Development, 74(2), 374–393. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.7402004.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Eder, D. (1985). The cycle of popularity: Interpersonal relations among female adolescents. Sociology of Education, 58(3), 154–165. doi: 10.2307/2112416.Google Scholar
  43. Egan, S. K., & Perry, D. G. (1998). Does low self-regard invite victimization? Developmental Psychology, 34(2), 299–309. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.34.2.299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fabes, R. A., Martin, C., & Hanish, L. D. (2009). Children’s behaviors and interactions with peers. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 45–62). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  45. Fein, G. G. (1981). Pretend play in childhood: An integrative review. Child Development, 52(4), 1095–1118. doi: 10.2307/1129497.Google Scholar
  46. Feldman, S., Rosenthal, D. R., Brown, N. L., & Canning, R. D. (1995). Predicting sexual experience in adolescent boys from peer rejection and acceptance during childhood. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5(4), 387–411. doi: 10.1207/s15327795jra0504_1.Google Scholar
  47. Furman, W. (1989). The development of children’s social networks. In D. Belle (Ed.), Children’s social networks and social supports (pp. 151–172). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  48. Garcia-Coll, C., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnic, K., Wasik, B. H., et al. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67(5), 1891–1914. doi: 10.2307/1131600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gershman, E. S., & Hayes, D. S. (1983). Differential stability of reciprocal friendships and unilateral relationships among preschool children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29(2), 169–177. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/mpq/.Google Scholar
  50. Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Blanton, H., & Russell, D. W. (1998). Reasoned action and social reaction: Willingness and intention as independent predictors of health risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1164–1180. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Giletta, M., Scholte, R. J., Burk, W. J., Engels, R. E., Larsen, J. K., Prinstein, M. J., et al. (2011). Similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescents’ friendship dyads: Selection or socialization? Developmental Psychology, 47(6), 1804–1814. doi: 10.1037/a0023872.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Goodman, M., Stormshak, E. A., & Dishion, T. J. (2001). The significance of peer victimization at two points in development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22(5), 507–526. doi: 10.1016/S0193-3973(01)00091-0.Google Scholar
  53. Gorman, A., Schwartz, D., Nakamoto, J., & Mayeux, L. (2011). Unpopularity and disliking among peers: Partially distinct dimensions of adolescents’ social experiences. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32(4), 208–217. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2011.05.001.Google Scholar
  54. Graham, S., Bellmore, A., Nishina, A., & Juvonen, J. (2009). “It must be me”: Ethnic diversity and attributions for peer victimization in middle school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(4), 487–499. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9386-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Graham, S., & Juvonen, J. (1998). Self-blame and peer victimization in middle school: An attributional analysis. Developmental Psychology, 34(3), 587–599. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.34.3.587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Graham, S., Taylor, A. Z., & Ho, A. Y. (2009). Race and ethnicity in peer relations research. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 394–413). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  57. Grills, A. E., & Ollendick, T. H. (2002). Peer victimization, global self-worth, and anxiety in middle school children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(1), 59–68. doi: 10.1207/153744202753441675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hammen, C., & Rudolph, K. D. (2003). Childhood mood disorders. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 233–278). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  59. Hankin, B. L., Stone, L., & Wright, P. (2010). Corumination, interpersonal stress generation, and internalizing symptoms: Accumulating effects and transactional influences in a multiwave study of adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 22(1), 217–235. doi: 10.1017/S0954579409990368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Harden, K., Hill, J. E., Turkheimer, E., & Emery, R. E. (2008). Gene-environment correlation and interaction in peer effects on adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. Behavior Genetics, 38(4), 339–347. doi: 10.1007/s10519-008-9202-7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Harter, S., Stocker, C., & Robinson, N. S. (1996). The perceived directionality of the link between approval and self-worth: The liabilities of a looking glass self-orientation among young adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6(3), 285–308. Retrieved from http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1050-8392.Google Scholar
  62. Hartup, W. W. (1970). Peer interaction and social organization. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Manual of child psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 2). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  63. Hartup, W. W. (1996). The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance. Child Development, 67(1), 1–13. doi: 10.2307/1131681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hawley, P. H., & Geldhof, G. (2012). Preschoolers’ social dominance, moral cognition, and moral behavior: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 112(1), 18–35. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.10.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Heilbron, N., & Prinstein, M. J. (2010). Adolescent peer victimization, peer status, suicidal ideation, and nonsuicidal self-injury. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56(3), 388–419. doi: 10.1353/mpq.0.0049.Google Scholar
  66. Hodges, E. E., Boivin, M., Vitaro, F., & Bukowski, W. M. (1999). The power of friendship: Protection against an escalating cycle of peer victimization. Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 94–101. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.35.1.94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hodges, E. E., Malone, M. J., & Perry, D. G. (1997). Individual risk and social risk as interacting determinants of victimization in the peer group. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 1032–1039. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hodges, E. E., & Perry, D. G. (1999). Personal and interpersonal antecedents and consequences of victimization by peers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(4), 677–685. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hymel, S., Rubin, K. H., Rowden, L., & LeMare, L. (1990). Children’s peer relationships: Longitudinal prediction of internalizing and externalizing problems from middle to late childhood. Child Development, 61(6), 2004–2021. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb03582.x.Google Scholar
  70. Jose, P. E., Kljakovic, M., Scheib, E., & Notter, O. (2012). The joint development of traditional bullying and victimization with cyber bullying and victimization in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(2), 301–309. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2011.00764.x.Google Scholar
  71. Kochenderfer-Ladd, B. (2003). Identification of aggressive and asocial victims and the stability of their peer victimization. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 401–425. Retrieved from: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/mpq/.Google Scholar
  72. Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., & Skinner, K. (2002). Children’s coping strategies: Moderators of the effects of peer victimization? Developmental Psychology, 38(2), 267–278. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.38.2.267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., & Wardrop, J. L. (2001). Chronicity and instability of children’s peer victimization experiences as predictors of loneliness and social satisfaction trajectories. Child Development, 72(1), 134–151. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. La Greca, A. M., & Prinstein, M. J. (1999). Peer group. In W. K. Silverman & T. H. Ollendick (Eds.), Developmental issues in the clinical treatment of children (pp. 171–198). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  75. Ladd, G. W. (2009). Trends, travails, and turning points in early research on children’s peer relationships: Legacies and lessons for our time? In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 20–41). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  76. Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1997). Classroom peer acceptance, friendship, and victimization: Distinct relational systems that contribute uniquely to children’s school adjustment? Child Development, 68(6), 1181–1197. doi: 10.2307/1132300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2010). Developmental cascades of peer rejection, social information processing biases, and aggression during middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 593–602. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000301.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Laursen, B., Bukowski, W. M., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. (2007). Friendship moderates prospective associations between social isolation and adjustment problems in young children. Child Development, 78(4), 1395–1404. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01072.x.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lochman, J. E., & Wayland, K. K. (1994). Aggression, social acceptance, and race as predictors of negative adolescent outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(7), 1026–1035. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199409000-00014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lopez, C., & DuBois, D. L. (2005). Peer victimization and rejection: Investigation of an integrative model of effects on emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment in early adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(1), 25–36. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Magnusson, D., & Stattin, H. (1998). Person-context interaction theories. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Theoretical models of human development 5th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 685–759). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  82. Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 491–495. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mayeux, L., Sandstrom, M. J., & Cillessen, A. N. (2008). Is being popular a risky proposition? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18(1), 49–74. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00550.x.Google Scholar
  84. McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Hilt, L. M. (2009). Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer victimization to internalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(5), 894–904. doi: 10.1037/a0015760.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mercken, L., Steglich, C., Sinclair, P., Holliday, J., & Moore, L. (2012). A longitudinal social network analysis of peer influence, peer selection, and smoking behavior among adolescents in British schools. Health Psychology, 31(4), 450–459. doi: 10.1037/a0026876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mueller, E., & Brenner, J. (1977). The origins of social skills and interaction among playgroup toddlers. Child Development, 48(3), 854–861. doi: 10.2307/1128334.Google Scholar
  87. Murray-Close, D., Hoza, B., Hinshaw, S. P., Arnold, L., Swanson, J., Jensen, P. S., et al. (2010). Developmental processes in peer problems of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in The Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD: Developmental cascades and vicious cycles. Development and Psychopathology, 22(4), 785–802. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000465.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Newcomb, A. F., & Bagwell, C. L. (1996). The developmental significance of children’s friendship relations. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 289–321). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Olweus, D. (1978). Aggression in the schools: Bullies and whipping boys. Oxford: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  90. Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Bean, R. A. (2009). Negative and positive peer influence: Relations to positive and negative behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 32(2), 323–337. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.02.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Parkhurst, J. T., & Hopmeyer, A. (1998). Sociometric popularity and peer-perceived popularity: Two distinct dimensions of peer status. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 18(2), 125–144. doi: 10.1177/0272431698018002001.Google Scholar
  92. Perry, D. G., Kusel, S. J., & Perry, L. C. (1988). Victims of peer aggression. Developmental Psychology, 24(6), 807–814. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.24.6.807.Google Scholar
  93. Prinstein, M. J. (2007). Moderators of peer contagion: A longitudinal examination of depression socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(2), 159–170. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.6.1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Prinstein, M. J., Boergers, J., & Vernberg, E. M. (2001). Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: Social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(4), 479–491. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3004_05.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Prinstein, M. J., Borelli, J. L., Cheah, C. L., Simon, V. A., & Aikins, J. (2005). Adolescent girls’ interpersonal vulnerability to depressive symptoms: A longitudinal examination of reassurance-seeking and peer relationships. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 676–688. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Prinstein, M. J., Cheah, C. L., & Guyer, A. E. (2005). Peer victimization, cue interpretation, and internalizing symptoms: Preliminary concurrent and longitudinal findings for children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(1), 11–24. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Prinstein, M. J., Choukas-Bradley, S. C., Helms, S. W., Brechwald, W. A., & Rancourt, D. (2011). High peer popularity longitudinally predicts adolescent health risk behavior, or does it? An examination of linear and quadratic associations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(9), 980–990. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsr053.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Prinstein, M. J., & Cillessen, A. N. (2003). Forms and functions of adolescent peer aggression associated with high levels of peer status. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49(3), 310–342. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2003.0015.Google Scholar
  99. Prinstein, M. J., Guerry, J. D., Browne, C. B., Rancourt, D., & Nock, M. K. (2009). Interpersonal models of nonsuicidal self-injury. In M. K. Nock (Ed.), Understanding nonsuicidal self-injury: Origins, assessment, and treatment (pp. 79–98). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/11875-005.Google Scholar
  100. Prinstein, M. J., & La Greca, A. M. (2004). Childhood peer rejection and aggression as predictors of adolescent girls’ externalizing and health risk behaviors: A 6-year longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(1), 103–112. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.72.1.103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Prinstein, M. J., Rancourt, D., Guerry, J. D., & Browne, C. B. (2009). Peer reputations and psychological adjustment. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 548–567). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  102. Rancourt, D., Conway, C. C., Burk, W. J., & Prinstein, M. J. (2013). Gender composition of preadolescents’ friendship groups moderates peer socialization of body change behaviors. Health Psychology., 32, 283–292. doi: 10.1037/a0027980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rancourt, D., & Prinstein, M. J. (2010). Peer status and victimization as possible reinforcements of adolescent girls’ and boys’ weight-related behaviors and cognitions. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(4), 354–367. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsp067.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Reavis, R. D., Keane, S. P., & Calkins, S. D. (2010). Trajectories of peer victimization: The role of multiple relationships. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56(3), 303–332. doi: 10.1353/mpq.0.0055.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Reich, S. M., Subrahmanyam, K., & Espinoza, G. (2012). Friending, IMing, and hanging out face-to-face: Overlap in adolescents’ online and offline social networks. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 356–368. doi: 10.1037/a0026980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J. H., Prinzie, P., Boelen, P. A., van der Schoot, M., & Telch, M. J. (2011). Prospective linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 37(3), 215–222. doi: 10.1002/ab.20374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J. H., Prinzie, P., & Telch, M. J. (2010). Peer victimization and internalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34(4), 244–252. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Repetti, R. L., Taylor, S. E., & Seeman, T. E. (2002). Risky families: Family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychological Bulletin, 128(2), 330–366. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.2.330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rock, P. F., Cole, D. J., Houshyar, S., Lythcott, M., & Prinstein, M. J. (2011). Peer status in an ethnic context: Associations with African American adolescents’ ethnic identity. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32, 163–169. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2011.03.002.Google Scholar
  110. Roff, M. M. (1961). Childhood social interactions and young adult bad conduct. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63(2), 333–337. doi: 10.1037/h0041004.Google Scholar
  111. Rose, A. J. (2002). Co-rumination in the friendships of girls and boys. Child Development, 73(6), 1830–1843. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rose, A. J., Carlson, W., & Waller, E. M. (2007). Prospective associations of co-rumination with friendship and emotional adjustment: Considering the socioemotional trade-offs of co-rumination. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 1019–1031. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.4.1019.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Rudolph, K. D., Hammen, C., & Burge, D. (1994). Interpersonal functioning and depressive symptoms in childhood: Addressing the issues of specificity and comorbidity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22(3), 355–371. doi: 10.1007/BF02168079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., & Granger, D. A. (2010). Peer victimization and aggression: Moderation by individual differences in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(6), 843–856. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9412-3.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., & Granger, D. A. (2011). Individual differences in biological stress responses moderate the contribution of early peer victimization to subsequent depressive symptoms. Psychopharmacology, 214(1), 209–219. doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-1879-7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., Hessel, E. T., & Schmidt, J. D. (2011). A latent growth curve analysis of early and increasing peer victimization as predictors of mental health across elementary school. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40(1), 111–122. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2011.533413.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Salmivalli, C., & Peets, K. (2009). Bullies, victims, and bully-victim relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 322–340). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  118. Sameroff, A. (2009). The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/11877-000.Google Scholar
  119. Schwartz, D. (2000). Subtypes of victims and aggressors in children’s peer groups. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 181–192. doi: 10.1023/A:1005174831561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Schwartz-Mette, R. A., & Rose, A. J. (2012). Co-rumination mediates contagion of internalizing symptoms within youth’s friendships. Developmental Psychology, 48, 1355–1365. doi: 10.1037/a0027484.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Snijders, T. A. B., Steglich, C. E. G., Schweinberger, M., & Huisman, M. (2006). Manual for SIENA, version 3. Groningen: University of Groningen.Google Scholar
  122. Stadler, C., Feifel, J., Rohrmann, S., Vermeiren, R., & Poustka, F. (2010). Peer-victimization and mental health problems in adolescents: Are parental and school support protective? Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(4), 371–386. doi: 10.1007/s10578-010-0174-5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Stice, E., Maxfield, J., & Wells, T. (2003). Adverse effects of social pressure to be thin on young women: An experimental investigation of the effects of ‘fat talk’. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34(1), 108–117. doi: 10.1002/eat.10171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Stone, L. B., Hankin, B. L., Gibb, B. E., & Abela, J. Z. (2011). Co-rumination predicts the onset of depressive disorders during adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(3), 752–757. doi: 10.1037/a0023384.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sugimura, N., & Rudolph, K. D. (2012). Temperamental differences in children’s reactions to peer victimization. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41(3), 314–328. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.656555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Underwood, M. K., Rosen, L. H., More, D., Ehrenreich, S. E., & Gentsch, J. K. (2012). The BlackBerry project: Capturing the content of adolescents’ text messaging. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 295–302. doi: 10.1037/a0025914.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. van Lier, P., Boivin, M., Dionne, G., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Koot, H., et al. (2007). Kindergarten children’s genetic variabilities interact with friends’ aggression to promote children’s own aggression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 1080–1087. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e318067733e.Google Scholar
  128. Vandell, D. L., Wilson, K. S., & Buchanan, N. R. (1980). Peer interaction in the first year of life: An examination of its structure, content, and sensitivity to toys. Child Development, 51(2), 481–488. doi: 10.2307/1129282.Google Scholar
  129. Vernberg, E. M. (1990). Psychological adjustment and experiences with peers during early adolescence: Reciprocal, incidental, or unidirectional relationships? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18(2), 187–198. doi: 10.1007/BF00910730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., Luk, J. W., & Nansel, T. R. (2010). Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: Physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(10), 1103–1112. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsq048.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wasserstein, S. B., & La Greca, A. M. (1996). Can peer support buffer against behavioral consequences of parental discord? Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25(2), 177–182. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2502_6.Google Scholar
  132. Zettergren, P., Bergman, L. R., & Wångby, M. (2006). Girls’ stable peer status and their adulthood adjustment: A longitudinal study from age 10 to age 43. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30(4), 315–325. doi: 10.1177/0165025406072793.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sophia Choukas-Bradley
    • 1
  • Mitchell J. Prinstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations