Advertisement

The Behavioural Dimension of Cancer and Sickness

  • Marisa Cordella
  • Aldo Poiani
Chapter

Abstract

Animals behave in specific manners when they are sick, and some of those behaviours may be adaptive responses to disease, whereas others may be a more straightforward result of dysfunction. Conversely, behaviours such as stressful social interactions may affect the normal functioning of the organism contributing—alone or in conjunction with other factors—to disease development. We start this chapter by reviewing the biological aspects of the interface between behaviour and disease in animals, with special reference to cancer in humans, to then explore in more detail the relationship of human cancer with pain, fatigue, sleep disorders, nausea and the various senses.

Keywords

Breast Cancer Patient Circadian Rhythm Telomere Length Psychological Stress Cancer Pain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aapro, M. S., Molassiotis, A., & Olver, I. (2005). Anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Supportive Care in Cancer, 13, 117–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu-Shakra, M., Buskila, D., Ehrenfeld, M., Conrad, K., & Shoenfeld, Y. (2001). Cancer and autoimmunity: Autoimmune and rheumatic features in patients with malignancies. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 60, 433–440.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adachi, S., Kawamura, K., & Takemoto, K. (1993). Oxidative damage of nuclear DNA in liver of rats exposed to psychological stress. Cancer Research, 53, 4153–4155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adler, N., & Matthews, K. (1994). Health psychology: Why do some people get sick and some stay well? Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 229–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Afari, N., & Buchwald, D. (2003). Chronic fatigue syndrome: A review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 221–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahles, T. A., Blanchard, E. B., & Ruckdeschel, J. C. (1983). The multidimensional nature of cancer-related pain. Pain, 17, 277–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahles, T. A., & Martin, J. B. (1992). Cancer pain: A multidimensional perspective. Hospice Journal, 8, 25–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahles, T. A., Ruckdeschel, J. C., & Blanchard, E. B. (1984). Cancer-related pain—I. Prevalence in an outpatient setting as a function of stage of disease and type of cancer. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 28, 115–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alegria-Torres, J. A., Baccarelli, A., & Bollati, V. (2011). Epigenetics and lifestyle. Epigenomics, 3, 267–277.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ancoli-Israel, S., Moore, P. J., & Jones, V. (2001). The relationship between fatigue and sleep in cancer patients: A review. European Journal of Cancer Care, 10, 245–255.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Andersen, B. L., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & Glaser, R. (1994). A biobehavioral model of cancer stress and disease course. American Psychologist, 49, 389–404.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Antoni, M. H., Lutgendorf, S. K., Cole, S. W., Dhabhar, F. S., Sephton, S. E., McDonald, P. G., et al. (2006). The influence of bio-behavioural factors on tumour biology: Pathways and mechanisms. Nature Reviews. Cancer, 6, 240–248.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Antonova, L., & Mueller, C. R. (2008). Hydrocortisone down-regulates the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 in mammary cells: A possible molecular link between stress and breast cancer. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, 47, 341–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Apkarian, A. V., Bushnell, M. C., Treede, R.-D., & Zubieta, J.-K. (2005). Human brain mechanisms of pain perception and regulation in health and disease. European Journal of Pain, 9, 463–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Aubert, A. (1999). Sickness and behaviour in animals: A motivational perspective. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 1029–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Avitsur, R., & Yirmiya, R. (1999). Cytokines inhibit sexual behavior in female rats: I. Synergistic effects of tumor necrosis factor a and interleukin-1. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 13, 14–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ayres, A., Hoon, P. W., Franzoni, J. B., Matheny, K. B., Cotanch, P. H., & Takayanagi, S. (1994). Influence of mood and adjustment to cancer on compliance with chemotherapy among breast cancer patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 393–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Azpiroz, A., Garmendia, L., Fano, E., & Sanchez-Martin, J. R. (2003). Relations between aggressive behavior, immune activity, and disease susceptibility. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 8, 433–453.Google Scholar
  19. Ballatori, E., & Roila, F. (2003). Impact of nausea and vomiting on quality of life in cancer patients during chemotherapy. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 46–56.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Barnes, E. A., & Bruera, E. (2002). Fatigue in patients with advanced cancer: A review. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 12, 424–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Barraclough, J., Pinder, P., Cruddas, M., Osmond, C., Taylor, I., & Perry, P. (1992). Life events and breast cancer prognosis. British Medical Journal, 304, 1078–1081.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Baum, A. (1990). Stress, intrusive imagery and chronic distress. Health Psychology, 9, 653–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Baum, A., & Posluszny, D. M. (1999). Health psychology: Mapping biobehavioral contributions to health and illness. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 137–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bechich, S., Graus, F., Arboix, A., Isidro, A., Martí, M., & Rosell, F. (2000). Anti-Hu-associated paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy and breast cancer. Journal of Neurology, 247, 552–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bernard, R. S., Cohen, L. L., McClellan, C. B., & MacLaren, J. E. (2004). Pediatric procedural approach-avoidance coping and distress: A multitrait-multimethod analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29, 131–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bernhardson, B.-M., Tishelman, C., & Rutqvist, L. E. (2008). Self-reported taste and smell changes during cancer chemotherapy. Supportive Care in Cancer, 16, 275–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Berteretche, M. V., Dalix, A. M., D’Ornano, A. M. C., Bellisle, F., Khayat, D., & Faurion, A. (2004). Decreased taste sensitivity in cancer patients under chemotherapy. Supportive Care in Cancer, 12, 571–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Beszterczey, A., & Lipowski, Z. J. (1977). Insomnia in cancer patients. CMA Journal, 19, 355.Google Scholar
  30. Black, P. H. (2002). Stress and the inflammatory response: A review of neurogenic inflammation. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 16, 622–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Blasco, M. A. (2005). Telomeres and human disease: Ageing, cancer and beyond. Nature Reviews. Genetics, 6, 611–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Block, A. R., Kremer, E. F., & Gaylor, M. (1980). Behavior treatment of chronic pain: The spouse as a discriminative cue for pain behavior. Pain, 9, 243–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bodhankar, S., Vandenbark, A. A., & Offner, H. (2012). Oestrogen treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis requires 17β-oestradiol-receptor-positive B cells that up-regulate PD-1 on CD4+Foxp3+regulatory T cells. Immunology, 137, 282–293.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Böhm, J., & Schaefer, H. E. (2002). Chronic neutrophilic leukaemia: 14 new cases of an uncommon myeloproliferative disease. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 55, 862–864.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bower, J. E., Ganz, P. A., Aziz, N., & Fahey, J. L. (2002). Fatigue and proinflammatory cytokine activity in breast cancer survivors. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 604–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Brawley, O. W. (2002). Disaggregating the effects of race and poverty on breast cancer outcomes. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 94, 471–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bruera, E., Catz, Z., Hooper, R., Lentle, B., & MacDonald, N. (1987). Chronic nausea and anorexia in advanced cancer patients: A possible role for autonomic dysfunction. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 2, 19–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Bruijs, C. (2007). Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment. Thesis, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  39. Buddeberg, C., Wolf, C., Sieber, M., Riehl-Emde, M., Bergant, A., Steiner, R., et al. (1991). Coping strategies and course of disease of breast cancer patients; results of a three year longitudinal study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 55, 151–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Burkhart-Schultz, K. J., Thompson, C. L., & Jones, I. M. (1996). Spectrum of mutation at the hypoxanthinephosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene of healthy people. Carcinogenesis, 17, 1871–1883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Byers, R. M., Smith, J. L., Russell, N., & Rosenberg, V. (1980). Malignant melanoma of the external ear. Review of 102 cases. American Journal of Surgery, 140, 518–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Capuron, L., Ravaud, A., & Dantzer, R. (2000). Early depressive symptoms in cancer patients receiving interleukin 2 and/or interferon alfa-2b therapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2000(18), 2143–2151.Google Scholar
  43. Carmichael, M. D., Davis, J. M., Murphy, E. A., Brown, A. S., Carson, J. A., Mayer, E. P., et al. (2006). Role of brain IL-1β on fatigue after exercise-induced muscle damage. American Journal of Physiology—Rugulatory Ontegrative and Comparative physiology, 291, R1344–R1348.Google Scholar
  44. Carpenter, J. S. (2005). State of the science: Hot flashes and cancer, Part 1: Definition, scope, impact, physiology, and measurement. Oncology Nursing Forum, 32, 959–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Carpenter, J. S., Gilchrist, J. M., Chen, K., Gautam, S., & Freedman, R. R. (2004). Hot flashes, core body temperature, and metabolic parameters in breast cancer survivors. Menopause, 11, 375–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cassel, J. (1974). An epidemiological perspective of psychosocial factors in disease etiology. American Journal of Public Health, 64, 1040–1043.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cassileth, B. R., Lusk, E. J., Miller, D. S., Brown, L., & Miller, C. (1985). Psychosocial correlates of survival in advanced malignant disease? New England Journal of Medicine, 312, 1551–1555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cassileth, B. R., Walsh, W. P., & Lusk, E. J. (1988). Psychosocial correlates of cancer survival: A subsequent report 3 to 8 years after cancer diagnosis. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 6, 1753–1759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Chang, J. C. (1981). Nausea and vomiting in cancer patients: An expression of psychological mechanisms? Psychosomatics, 22, 707–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Chen, W. C., Jackson, A., Budnick, A. S., Pfister, D. G., Kraus, D. H., Hunt, M. A., et al. (2006). Sensorineural hearing loss in combined modality treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer, 106, 820–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Chen-Goodspeed, M., & Lee, C. C. (2007). Tumor suppression and circadian function. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 22, 291–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Chintagumpala, M., Chevez-Barrios, P., Paysse, E. A., PLON, S. E., & Hurwitz, R. (2007). Retinoblastoma: Review of current management. The Oncologist, 12, 1237–1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Chung, J. W. Y., Wong, T. K. S., & Yang, J. C. S. (2000). The lens model: Assessment of cancer pain in a Chinese context. Cancer Nursing, 23, 454–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cleeland, C. S., Bennett, G. J., Dantzer, R., Dougherty, P. M., Dunn, A. J., Meyers, C. A., et al. (2003). Are the symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment due to a shared biologic mechanism? Cancer, 97, 2919–2925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cleeland, C. S., Mendoza, T. R., Wang, X. S., Chou, C., Harle, M. T., Morrissey, M., et al. (2000). Assessing symptom distress in cancer patients: The M.D. Anderson symptom inventory. Cancer, 89, 1634–1646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., & Miller, G. E. (2007). Psychological stress and disease. JAMA, 298, 1685–1687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Cole, S. W., & Sood, A. K. (2012). Molecular pathways: Beta-adrenergic signaling in cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 18, 1201–1206.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Comeau, T. B., Epstein, J. B., & Migas, C. (2001). Taste and smell dysfunction in patients receiving chemotherapy: A review of current knowledge. Supportive Care in Cancer, 9, 575–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Cordella, M. (2011a). Overcoming language and cultural differences in medical encounters: The use of a language and culture training course (LACT) in educating IMGs in Australia. In B. J. Hoekje & S. M. Tipton (Eds.), English language and the medical profession: Instructing and assessing the communication skills of international physicians (pp. 175–210). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group.Google Scholar
  60. Coyle, N., & Foley, K. (1985). Pain in patients with cancer: Profile of patients and common pain syndromes. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 1, 93–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Dantzer, R. (2004). Innate immunity at the forefront of psychoneuroimmunology. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 18, 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dantzer, R. (2009). Cytokine, sickness, behavior, and depression. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, 29, 247–264.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Dantzer, R., & Kelley, K. W. (1989). Stress and immunity: An integrated view of relationships between the brain and the immune system. Life Sciences, 44, 1995–2008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Dantzer, R., & Kelley, K. W. (2007). Twenty years of research on cytokine-induced sickness behavior. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21, 153–160.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Dantzer, R., O’Connor, J. C., Freund, G. G., Johnson, R. W., & Kelley, K. W. (2008). From inflammation to sickness and depression: When the immune system subjugates the brain. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 9, 46–57.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Darnell, R. B. (1996). Onconeural antigens and the paraneoplastic neurologic disorders: At the intersection of cancer, immunity, and the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 93, 4529–4536.Google Scholar
  67. Darnell, R. B., & Posner, J. B. (2003). Paraneoplastic syndromes involving the nervous system. New England Journal of Medicine, 349, 1543–1554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Davidson, J. R., Feldman-Stewart, D., Brennenstuhl, S., & Ram, S. (2007). How to provide insomnia interventions to people with cancer: Insights from patients. Psycho-Oncology, 16, 1028–1038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Davis, M. P., & Walsh, D. (2000). Treatment of nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer. Supportive Care in Cancer, 8, 444–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. de Beaurepaire, R., Swiergiel, A. H., & Dunn, A. J. (2005). Neuroimmune mediators: Are cytokines mediators of depression? In J. Licinio & M.-L. Wong (Eds.), Biology of depression (Vol. 2, pp. 557–581). Weinheim: Wiley.Google Scholar
  71. de Visser, K. E., Eichten, A., & Coussens, L. M. (2006). Paradoxical roles of the immune system during cancer development. Nature Reviews. Cancer, 6, 24–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. de Williams, A. C. C. (2002). Facial expression of pain: An evolutionary account. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 439–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Dean, C., & Surtees, P. G. (1989). Do psychological factors predict survival in breast cancer? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33, 561–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Derogatis, L. R., Abeloff, M. D., & Melisaratos, N. (1979). Psychological coping mechanisms and survival time in metastatic breast cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association, 242, 1504–1508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Dhabhar, F. S. (2000). Acute stress enhances while chronic stress suppresses skin immunity: The role of stress hormones and leukocyte trafficking. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 917, 876–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Dhabhar, F. S. (2009). Enhancing versus suppressive effects of stress on immune function: Implications for immunoprotection and immunopathology. Neuroimmunomodulation, 16, 300–317.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Dimitroglou, E., Zafiropoulou, M., Messini-Nikolaki, N., Doudounakis, S., Tsilimigaki, S., & Piperakis, S. M. (2003). DNA damage in a human population affected by chronic psychogenic stress. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 206, 39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Dolbeault, S., Szporn, A., & Holland, J. C. (1999). Psycho-oncology: Where have we been? Where are we going? European Journal of Cancer, 35, 1554–1558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Doolittle, N. D., Muldoon, L. L., Brummett, R. E., Tyson, R. M., Lacy, C., Bubalo, J. S., et al. (2001). Delayed sodium thiosulfate as an otoprotectant against carboplatin-induced hearing loss in patients with malignant brain tumors. Clinical Cancer Research, 7, 493–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Dropcho, E. J. (1995). Autoimmune central nervous system paraneoplastic disorders: Mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapeutic options. Annals of Neurology, 37, S102–S113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Dunham, L. J. (1972). Cancer in man at site of prior benign lesion of skin or mucous membrane: A review. Cancer Research, 32, 1359–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Dunn, A. J., Swiergiel, A. H., & de Beaurepaire, R. (2005). Cytokines as mediators of depression: What can we learn from animal studies? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 891–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Eichmuller, S. B., & Bazhin, A. V. (2007). Onconeural versus paraneoplastic antigens? Current Medical Chemistry, 14, 2489–2494.Google Scholar
  84. Eisenberg, L. (1977). Disease and illness: Distinctions between professional and popular ideas of sickness. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 1, 9–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Elias, S. G., Peeters, P. H., Grobbee, D. E., & van Noord, P. A. (2004). Breast cancer risk after caloric restriction during the 1944–1945 Dutch famine. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96, 539–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Elias, S. G., Peeters, P. H. M., Grobbee, D. E., & van Noord, P. A. H. (2005). The 1944–1945 Dutch famine and subsequent overall cancer incidence. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 14, 1981–1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Elliott, B. A., Elliott, T. E., Murray, D. M., Braun, B. L., & Johnson, K. M. (1996). Patients and family members: The role of knowledge and attitudes in cancer pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 12, 209–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Epel, E. S., Blackburn, E. H., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F. S., Adler, N. E., Morrow, J. D., et al. (2004). Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, United States of America, 101, 17312–17315.Google Scholar
  89. Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., Hertzman, C., Lam, L. L., Armstrong, J. M., Neumann, S. M. A., et al. (2013). Epigenetic vestiges of early developmental adversity: Childhood stress exposure and DNA methylation in adolescence. Child Development, 84, 58–75.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Feinberg, A. P., & Henikoff, S. (2005). The epigenetic progenitor origin of human cancer. Nature Genetics Reviews, 7, 21–33.Google Scholar
  91. Fernandez, E., & Milburn, T. W. (1994). Sensory and affective predictors of overall pain and emotions associated with affective pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 10, 3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Festinger, L. A. (1954). Theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140.Google Scholar
  93. Filipski, E., Li, X. M., & Lévi, F. (2006). Disruption of circadian coordination and malignant growth. Cancer Causes and Control, 17, 509–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Finck, G., Barton, D. L., Loprinzi, C. L., Quella, S. K., & Sloan, J. A. (1998). Definitions of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 16, 327–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Fiorentino, L., & Ancoli-Israel, S. (2006). Insomnia and its treatment in women with breast cancer. Sleep Medicine Review, 10, 419–429.Google Scholar
  96. Fischman, H. K., Pero, R. W., & Kelly, D. D. (1996). Psychogenic stress induces chromosomal and DNA damage. International Journal of Neuroscience, 84, 219–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Flint, M. S., Baum, A., Chambers, W. H., & Jenkins, F. J. (2007). Induction of DNA damage, alteration of DNA repair and transcriptional activation by stress hormones. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 470–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Forsén, A. (1991). Psychosocial stress as a risk factor for breast cancer. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 55, 176–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Fortner, B. V., Stepanski, E. J., Wang, S. C., Kasprowicz, S., & Durrence, H. H. (2002). Sleep and quality of life in breast cancer patients. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 24, 471–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Fox, B. H. (1983). Current theory of psychogenic effects on cancer incidence and prognosis. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 1, 17–31.Google Scholar
  101. Fox, B. H. (1995). The role of psychological factors in cancer incidence and prognosis. Oncology, 9, 245–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Freeman, H. (1991). Race, poverty, and cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 83, 526–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Freeman, H. P. (2004). Poverty, culture, and social injustice: Determinants of cancer disparities. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 54, 72–77.Google Scholar
  104. Fu, L., & Lee, C. C. (2003). The circadian clock: Pacemaker and tumour suppressor. Nature Reviews. Cancer, 3, 350–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Funch, D. P., & Marshall, J. (1983). The role of stress, social support and survival from breast cancer. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27, 77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Fylan, F. (1998). Screening for cervical cancer: A review of women’s attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour. British Journal of General Practice, 48, 1509–1514.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Garssen, B. (2004). Psychological factors and cancer development: Evidence after 30 years of research. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 315–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Gidron, Y., & Ronson, A. (2008). Psychosocial factors, biological mediators, and cancer prognosis: A new look at an old story. Current Opinion in Oncology, 20, 386–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Gidron, Y., Russ, K., Tissarchondou, H., & Warner, J. (2006). The relation between psychological factors and DNA-damage: A critical review. Biological Psychology, 72, 291–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Gil, K. M., Keefe, F. J., Crisson, J. E., & Van Dalfsen, P. J. (1987). Social support and pain behavior. Pain, 29, 209–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Glaser, R., Thorn, B. E., Tarr, K. L., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & D’Ambrosio, S. M. (1985). Effects of stress on methyltransferase synthesis: An important DNA repair enzyme. Health Psychology, 4, 403–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Godbout, J. P., & Glaser, R. (2006). Stress-induced immune dysregulation: Implications for wound healing, infectious disease and cancer. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 1, 421–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Goodwin, J. S., Hunt, W. C., Key, C. R., & Samet, J. M. (1987). The effect of marital status on stage, treatment, and survival of cancer patients. Journal of the American Medical Association, 258, 3125–3130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Goujon, E., Parnet, P., Aubert, A., Goodall, G., & Dantzer, R. (1995). Corticosterone regulates behavioral effects of lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1β in mice. American Journal of Physiology, 269, R154–R159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Graci, G. (2005). Pathogenesis and management of cancer-related insomnia. Journal of Supportive Oncology, 3, 349–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Grau, C., Møller, K., Overgaard, M., Overgaard, J., & Elbrønd, O. (1991). Sensory-neural hearing loss in patients treated with irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 21, 723–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Grazyna, A., Machnicki, M., & Seige, G. M. (1997). Apoptotic retinal cell death induced by antirecoverin autoantibodies of cancer-associated retinopathy. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 38, 283–291.Google Scholar
  118. Greaves, M. (2000). Cancer: The evolutionary legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Greer, S., Morris, T., & Pettingale, K. W. (1979). Psychological response to breast cancer: Effect on outcome. Lancet, ii, 785–787.Google Scholar
  120. Greer, S., Morris, T., Pettingale, K. W., & Haybittle, J. L. (1990). Psychological response to breast cancer and 15-year outcome. Lancet, 335, 49–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Gupta, S. (1988). Cytokines: Molecular and biological characteristics. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 76(Suppl.), 189–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Gutstein, H. B. (2001). The biologic basis of fatigue. Cancer, 92, 1678–1683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Hamilton, T. (1969). Influence of environmental light and melatonin upon mammary tumour induction. British Journal of Surgery, 56, 764–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Hart, B. L. (1988). Biological basis of the behavior of sick animals. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 12, 123–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Hassan, S., Karpova, Y., Baiz, D., Yancey, D., Pullikuth, A., Flores, A., et al. (2013). Behavioral stress accelerates prostate cancer development in mice. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 123, 874–886.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Hawkins, R. M. F. (2001). A systematic meta-review of hypnosis as an empirically supported treatment for pain. Pain Reviews, 8, 47–73.Google Scholar
  127. Hayashi, T., Urayama, O., Kawai, K., Hayashi, K., Iwanaga, S., Ohta, M., et al. (2006). Laughter regulates gene expression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75, 62–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Heikkilä, K., Nyberg, S. T., Theorell, T., Fransson, E. I., Alfredsson, L., Bjorner, J. B., et al. (2013). Work stress and risk of cancer: Meta-analysis of 5700 incident cancer events in 116000 European men and women. BMJ, 346, f165. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f165 (Published February 7, 2013).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Herbert, T. B., & Cohen, S. (1993). Stress and immunity in humans: A meta-analytic review. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 364–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Hilakivi-Clarke, L., Rowland, J., Clarke, R., & Lippman, M. E. (1993). Psychosocial factors in the development and progression of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 29, 141–160.Google Scholar
  131. Hilaviki-Clarke, L. (1997). Estrogen-regulated non-reproductive behaviors and breast cancer risk: Animal models and human studies. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 46, 143–159.Google Scholar
  132. Hislop, T. G., Waxler, N. E., Coldman, A. J., Elwood, J. M., & Kan, L. (1987). The prognostic significance of psychosocial factors in women with breast cancer. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 40, 729–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Holland, J. C. (2002). History of psycho-oncology: Overcoming attitudinal and conceptual barriers. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 206–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Holland, J. C., Breitbart, W. S., Jacobsen, P. B., Lederberg, M. S., Loscalzo, M. J., & McCorkle, R. (2010). Psycho-Oncology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Hong, J. H., Omur-Ozbek, P., Stanek, B. T., Dietrich, A. M., Duncan, S. E., Lee, Y. W., et al. (2009). Taste and odor abnormalities in cancer patients. Journal of Supportive Oncology, 7, 58–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. IASP Subcommittee on Taxonomy. (1979). Pain terms: A list with definitions and notes on usage. Pain, 6, 249–252.Google Scholar
  137. Innominato, P. F., Giacchetti, S., Bjarnason, G. A., Focan, C., Garufi, C., Coudert, B., et al. (2012). Prediction of overall survival through circadian rest-activity monitoring during chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 131, 2684–2692.Google Scholar
  138. Irie, M., Miyata, M., & Kasai, H. (2005). Depression and possible cancer risk due to oxidative DNA damage. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 39, 553–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Jacobsen, R., Liubarskienė, Z., Møldrup, C., Christrup, L., Sjøgren, P., & Samsanavičienè, J. (2009). Barriers to cancer pain management: A review of empirical research. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 45, 427–433.Google Scholar
  140. Jamison, R. N., Burish, T. G., & Wallston, K. A. (1987). Psychogenic factors in predicting survival of breast cancer patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 5, 768–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Jensen, M. R. (1987). Psychobiological factors predicting the course of breast cancer. Journal of Personality, 55, 317–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Jochle, W. (1964). Trends in photophysiologic concept. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 117, 88–104.Google Scholar
  143. Johnson, R. W. (1998). Immune and endocrine regulation of food intake in sick animals. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 15, 309–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Johnson, R. W. (2002). The concept of sickness behavior: A brief chronological account of four key discoveries. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 87, 443–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Jones, S. E. (1973). Autoimmune disorders and malignant lymphoma. Cancer, 31, 1092–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Justice, A. (1985). Review of the effects of stress on cancer in laboratory animals: Importance of time of stress application and type of tumor. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 108–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Kaplin, A., & Bartner, S. (2005). Reciprocal communication between the nervous and immune systems: Crosstalk, back-talk and motivational speeches. International Review of Psychiatry, 17, 439–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Karin, M., & Greten, F. R. (2005). NF-kB: Linking inflammation and immunity to cancer development and progression. Nature Reviews Immunology, 5, 749–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Keefe, F. J., Lefebvre, J. C., Egert, J., Affleck, G., Sullivan, M. J., & Caldwell, D. S. (2000). The relationship of gender to pain, pain behavior, and disability in osteoarthritis patients: The role of catastrophizing. Pain, 87, 325–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Keefe, F. J., Lipkus, I., Lefebvre, J. C., Hurwitz, H., Clipp, E., Smith, J., et al. (2003). The social context of gastrointestinal cancer pain: A preliminary study examining the relation of patient pain catastrophizing to patient perceptions of social support and caregiver stress and negative responses. Pain, 103, 151–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Kelley, K. W., Bluth, R.-M., Dantzer, R., Zhou, J.-H., Shen, W.-H., Johnson, R. W., et al. (2003). Cytokine-induced sickness behavior. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17, S112–S118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kerkhof, G. A. (1985). Inter-individual differences in the human circadian system: A review. Biological Psychology, 20, 83–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Malarkey, W. B., Chee, M., Newton, T., Cacioppo, J. T., Mao, H. Y., et al. (1993). Negative behavior during marital conflict is associated with immunological down-regulation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 395–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Stephens, R. E., Lipetz, P. D., Speicher, C. E., & Glaser, R. (1985). Distress and DNA repair in human lymphocytes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 311–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kluger, M. J. (1978). The evolution and adaptive value of fever. American Scientist, 66, 38–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Kojo, K., Pukkala, E., & Auvinen, A. (2005). Breast cancer risk among Finnish cabin attendants: A nested case-control study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62, 488–493.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Konsman, J. P., & Dantzer, R. (2001). How the immune and nervous systems interact during disease-associated anorexia. Nutrition, 17, 664–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Konsman, J. P., Parnet, P., & Dantzer, R. (2002). Cytokine-induced sickness behaviour: Mechanisms and implications. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 154–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Koolhaas, J. M., Korte, S. M., De Boer, S. F., Van der Vegt, B. J., Van Reenen, C. G., Hopster, H., et al. (1999). Coping styles in animals: Current status in behavior and stress-physiology. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 925–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Kornguth, S. E., Klein, R., Appen, R., & Choate, J. (1982). Occurrence of anti-retinal ganglion cell antibodies in patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Cancer, 50, 1289–1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Lamkin, D. M., Sloan, E. K., Patel, A. J., Chiang, B. S., Pimentel, M. A., Ma, J. C. Y., et al. (2012). Chronic stress enhances progresson of acute lymphoblastic leukemia via β-adrenergic signalling. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 26, 635–641.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Landay, A. L., Jessop, C., Lennette, E. T., & Levy, J. A. (1991). Chronic fatigue syndrome: Clinical condition associated with immune activation. Lancet, 338, 707–712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Larson, S. J., & Dunn, A. J. (2001). Behavioral effects of cytokines. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 15, 371–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Lazarus, R. S., DeLongis, A., Folkman, S., & Gruen, R. (1985). Stress and adaptational outcomes: The problem of confound measures. American Psychologist, 7, 770–779.Google Scholar
  165. Lee, K., Cho, M., Miaskowski, C., & Dodd, M. (2004). Impaired sleep and rhythms in persons with cancer. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 8, 199–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Lee, B. N., Dantzer, R., Langley, K. E., Bennett, G. J., Dougherty, P. M., Dunn, A. J., et al. (2004). A cytokine-based neuroimmunologic mechanism of cancer-related symptoms. Neuroimmunomodulation, 11, 279–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Levi, F., & Schibler, U. (2007). Circadian rhythms: Mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 47, 593–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Levy, S. M., Lee, J., Bagley, C., & Lippman, M. (1988). Survival hazards analysis in first recurrent breast cancer patients: Seven-year follow-up. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 1–9.Google Scholar
  169. Lewis, J. S. (1987). Cancer of the ear. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 37, 78–87.Google Scholar
  170. Lorusso, L., Mikhaylova, S. V., Capelli, E., Ferrari, D., Ngonga, G. K., & Ricevuti, G. (2009). Immunological aspects of chronic fatigue syndrome. Autoimmunity Reviews, 8, 287–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Lu, X. T., Liu, Y. F., Zhao, L., Li, W. J., Yang, R. X., Yan, F. F., et al. (2013). Chronic psychological stress induces vascular inflammation in rabbits. Stress, 16, 87–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Lutgendorf, S. K., & Sood, A. K. (2011). Biobehavioral factors and cancer progression: Physiological pathways and mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73, 724–730.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Maes, M. (1993). A review on the acute phase response in major depression. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 4, 407–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Maes, M., Smith, R., & Scharpe, S. (1995). The monocyte-T-lymphocyte hypothesis of major depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 20, 111–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Maier, S. F., & Watkins, L. R. (2003). Immune-to-central nervous system communication and its role in modulating pain and cognition: Implications for cancer and cancer treatment. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17, S125–S131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Marsland, A. L., Cohen, S., Rabin, B. S., & Manuck, S. B. (2006). Trait positive affect and antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 20, 261–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Massie, M. J., & Holland, J. C. (1992). The cancer patient with pain: Psychiatric complications and their management. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 7, 99–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Matés, J. M., & Sánchez-Jiménez, F. M. (2000). Role of reactive oxygen species in apoptosis: Implications for cancer therapy. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 32, 157–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Matsunaga, M., Isowa, T., Kimura, K., Miyakoshi, M., Kanayama, N., Murakami, H., et al. (2008). Associations among central nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when positive emotions are elicited by looking at a favorite person. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22, 408–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. McEwen, B. S., Alves, S. E., Bulloch, K., & Weiland, N. G. (1997). Ovarian steroids and the brain: Implications for cognition and aging. Neurology, 48(Suppl. 7), S8–S15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. McEwen, B. S., Biron, C. A., Brunson, K. W., Bulloch, K., Chambers, W. H., Dhabhar, F. S., et al. (1997). The role of adrenocorticoids as modulators of immune function in health and disease: Neural, endocrine and immune interactions. Brain Research Reviews, 23, 79–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. McGuire, D. B. (1987). The multidimensional phenomenon of cancer pain. In D. B. McGuire & C. H. Yarbro (Eds.), Cancer pain management (pp. 1–20). Orlando, FL: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  183. McGuire, D. B. (2004). Occurrence of cancer pain. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs, 32, 51–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Melzack, R. (2008). The future of pain. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 7, 629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Melzack, R., & Wall, P. D. (1965). Pain mechanisms: A new theory. Science, 150, 971–979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Menéndez, L., Lastra, A., Fresno, M. F., Llames, S., Meana, A., Hidalgo, A., et al. (2003). Initial thermal heat hypoalgesia and delayed hyperalgesia in a murine model of bone cancer pain. Brain Research, 969, 102–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Mercadante, S., Girelli, D., & Casuccio, A. (2004). Sleep disorders in advanced cancer patients: Prevalence and factors associated. Supportive Care in Cancer, 12, 355–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Miller, N. E. (1964). Some psychophysiological studies of motivation and of the behavioural effects of illness. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 17, 1–21.Google Scholar
  189. Miller, S. C., Pandi, P. S. R., Esquifino, A. I., Cardinali, D. P., & Maestroni, G. J. M. (2006). The role of melatonin in immuno-enhancement: Potential application in cancer. International Journal of Experimental Pathology, 87, 81–87.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Moldofsky, H., & Dickstein, J. B. (1999). Sleep and cytokine–immune functions in medical, psychiatric and primary sleep disorders. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 3, 325–337.Google Scholar
  191. Moore, R. Y. (1997). Circadian rhythms: Basic neurobiology and clinical applications. Annual Review of Medicine, 48, 253–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Morgulis, M. S. F. A., Stankevicius, D., Sá-Rocha, L. C., & Palermo-Neto, J. (2004). Cohabitation with a sick cage mate: Consequences on behavior and on Ehrlich tumor growth. Neuroimmunomodulation, 11, 49–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Morris, T., Pettingale, K., & Haybittle, J. (1992). Psychological response to cancer diagnosis and disease outcome in patients with breast cancer and lymphoma. Psycho-Oncology, 1, 105–114.Google Scholar
  194. Morrow, G. R., Lindke, J., & Black, P. M. (1991). Predicting development of anticipatory nausea in cancer patients: Prospective examination of eight clinical characteristics. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 6, 215–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Morrow, G. R., Roscoe, J. A., Hickok, J. T., Andrews, P. L. R., & Matteson, S. (2002). Nausea and emesis: Evidence for a biobehavioral perspective. Supportive Care in Cancer, 10, 96–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Morton, R. P., Stell, P. M., & Derrick, P. P. O. (1984). Epidemiology of cancer of the middle ear cleft. Cancer, 53, 1612–1617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Moscavitch, S.-D., Szyper-Kravitz, M., & Shoenfeld, Y. (2009). Autoimmune pathology accounts for common manifestations in a wide range of neuro-psychiatric disorders: The olfactory and immune system relationship. Clinical Immunology, 130, 235–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Mulder, C. L., van del Pompe, G., Spiegel, D., Antoni, M. H., & de Vries, M. J. (1992). Do psychosocial factors influence the course of breast cancer? A review of recent literature, methodological problems and future directions. Psycho-Oncology, 1, 155–167.Google Scholar
  199. Munck, A., & Guyre, P. M. (1991). Glucocorticoids and immune function. In R. Ader, D. L. Felten, & N. Cohe (Eds.), Psychoneuroimmunology (pp. 447–474). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  200. Munck, A., Guyre, P. M., & Holbrook, N. J. (1984). Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions. Endocrine Reviews, 5(1984), 25–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Munhoz, C. D., García-Bueno, B., Madrigal, J. L. M., Lepsch, L. B., Scavone, C., & Leza, J. C. (2008). Stress-induced neuroinflammation: mechanisms and new pharmacological targets. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 41, 1037–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Myers, J. S. (2008). Proinflammatory cytokines and sickness behavior: Implications for depression and cancer-related symptoms. Oncology Nursing Forum, 35, 802–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Neale, A., Tilley, B., & Vernon, S. (1986). Marital status delay in seeking treatment and survival from breast cancer. Social Science and Medicine, 23, 305–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Neeman, E., Zmora, O., & Ben-Eliyahu, S. (2012). A new approach to reducing postsurgical cancer recurrence: Perioperative targeting of catecholamines and prostaglandins. Clinical Cancer Research, 18, 4895–4902.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Nesset, K. A. (2012). Characterisation of glucocorticoid receptor promoter methylation in breast cancer. Master thesis, Biochemistry. Queen’s University, Canada.Google Scholar
  206. O’Donovan, A., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F. S., Wolkowitz, O., Tillie, J. M., Blackburn, E., et al. (2009). Pessimism correlates with leukocyte telomere shortness and elevated interleukin-6 in postmenopausal women. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23, 446–449.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. O'Donnell, J. F. (2004). Insomnia in cancer patients. Clinical Cornerstone, 6(Suppl. 1D), S6–S14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Ohaeri, J. U., Campbell, O. B., Ilesanmil, A. O., & Ohaeri, B. M. (1998). Psychosocial concerns of Nigerian women with breast and cervical cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 7, 494–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Parker, K. P., Bliwise, D. L., Ribeiro, M., Jain, S. R., Vena, C. I., Kohles-Baker, M. K., et al. (2008). Sleep/wake patterns of individuals with advanced cancer measured by ambulatory polysomnography. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26, 2464–2472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Parker, J., Klein, S. L., McClintock, M. K., Morison, W. L., Ye, X., Conti, C. J., et al. (2004). Chronic stress accelerates ultraviolet-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 51, 919–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Pecchi, E., Dallaporta, M., Jean, A., Thirion, S., & Troadec, J.-D. (2009). Prostaglandins and sickness behavior: Old story, new insights. Physiology and Behavior, 97, 279–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Peterson, K., Forsyth, P. A., & Posner, J. B. (1994). Paraneoplastic sensorimotor neuropathy associated with breast cancer. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 21, 159–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Pettingale, K. W., Morris, T., Greer, S., & Haybittle, J. L. (1985). Mental attitudes to cancer: An additional prognostic factor. The Lancet, 1, 750.Google Scholar
  214. Piper, B., Rieger, P., Brophy, L., Haeuber, D., Hood, D., & Lyver, A. (1989). Recent advances in the management of biotherapy-related fatigue. Oncology Nursing Forum, 16(Suppl.), 27–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Pollak, Y., & Yirmiya, R. (2002). Cytokine-induced changes in mood and behaviour: Implications for ‘depression due to a general medical condition’, immunotherapy and antidepressive treatment. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 5, 389–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Porcelli, P., Tulipani, C., Maiello, E., Cilenti, G., & Todarello, O. (2007). Alexithymia, coping, and illness behavior correlates of pain experience in cancer patients. Psycho-Oncology, 16, 644–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Posner, T. (1991). What’s in a smear? Cervical screening, medical signs and metaphors. Science and Culture, 2, 167–187.Google Scholar
  218. Pukkala, E., Aspholm, R., Auvinen, A., Eliasch, H., Gundestrup, M., Haldorsen, T., et al. (2002). Incidence of cancer among nordic airline pilots over five decades: Occupational cohort study. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 325, 567–569.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Quesada, J., Talpaz, M., & Rios, A. (1986). Clinical toxicity of interferons in cancer patients: A review. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 4, 234–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Raaijmakers, E., & Engelen, A. M. (2002). Is sensorineural hearing loss a possible side effect of nasopharyngeal and parotid irradiation? A systematic review of the literature. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 65, 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Rahemtulla, Z., Baldwin, C., Spiro, A., McGough, C., Norman, A. R., Frost, G., et al. (2005). The palatability of milk-based and non-milk-based nutritional supplements in gastrointestinal cancer and the effect of chemotherapy. Clinical Nutrition, 24, 1029–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Raison, C. L., Dantzer, R., Kelley, K. W., Lawson, M. A., Woolwine, B. J., Vogt, G., et al. (2010). CSF concentrations of brain tryptophan and kynurenines during immune stimulation with IFN-alpha: Relationship to CNS immune responses and depression. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 393–403.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Raison, C. L., & Miller, A. H. (2003). Depression in cancer: New developments regarding diagnosis and treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 283–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Ramirez, A. J., Craig, T. K. J., Watson, J. P., Fentiman, I. S., North, W. R. S., & Rubens, R. D. (1989). Stress and relapse of breast cancer. British Medical Journal, 298, 291–293.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Ravasco, P. (2005). Aspects of taste and compliance in patients with cancer. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 9, S84–S91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Ray, M., Rogers, L. Q., Trammell, R. A., & Toth, L. A. (2008). Fatigue and sleep during cancer and chemotherapy: Translational rodent models. Comparative Medicine, 58, 234–245.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Reichenberg, A., Yirmiya, R., Schuld, A., Kraus, T., Haack, M., Morag, A., et al. (2001). Cytokine-associated emotional and cognitive disturbances in humans. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 445–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Rennebeck, G., Martelli, M., & Kyprianou, N. (2005). Anoikis and survival connections in the tumor microenvironment: Is there a role in prostate cancer metastasis? Cancer Research, 65, 11230–11235.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Reuben, D. B., & Mor, V. (1986). Nausea and vomiting in terminal cancer patients. Archives of Internal Medicine, 146, 2021–2023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Reuter, S., Gupta, S. C., Chaturvedi, M. M., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2010). Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: How are they linked? Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 49, 1603–1616.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Reuter, K., & Härter, M. (2004). The concepts of fatigue and depression in cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care, 13, 127–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Reynolds, P., Cone, J., Layefsky, M., Goldberg, D. E., & Hurley, S. (2002). Cancer incidence in California flight attendants (United States). Cancer Causes and Control, 13, 317–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Rich, T., Innominato, P. F., Boerner, J., Mormont, M. C., Iacobelli, S., Baron, B., et al. (2005). Elevated serum cytokines correlated with altered behavior, serum cortisol rhythm, and dampened 24-hour rest-activity patterns in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 11, 1757–1764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Richardson, A. (1995). Fatigue in cancer patients: A review of the literature. European Journal of Cancer Care, 4, 20–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Rossi Ferrario, S., Zotti, A. M., Massara, G., & Nuvolone, G. (2003). A comparative assessment of psychological and psychosocial characteristics of cancer patients and their caregivers. Psycho-Oncology, 12, 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Roth, T. (2007). Insomnia: Definition, prevalence, etiology, and consequences. Journal of Clinical and Sleep Medicine, 3(Suppl.), S7–S10.Google Scholar
  237. Ruh, M. F., Bi, Y., D’Alonzo, R., & Bellone, C. J. (1998). Effect of estrogens on IL-1β promoter activity. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 66, 203–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Rusiecki, J. A., Chen, L., Srikantan, V., Zhang, L., Yan, L., Polin, M. L., et al. (2012). DNA methylation in repetitive elements and post-traumatic stress disorder: A case-control study of US military service members. Epigenomics, 4, 29–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Ryan, J. L., Carroll, J. K., Ryan, E. P., Mustian, K. M., Fiscella, K., & Morrow, G. R. (2007). Mechanisms of cancer-related fatigue. The Oncologist, 12(Suppl. 1), 22–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Satin, J. R., Linden, W., & Phillips, M. J. (2009). Depression as a predictor of disease progression and mortality in cancer patients: A meta-analysis. Cancer, 115, 5349–5361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Saul, A. N., Oberyszyn, T. M., Daugherty, C., Kusewitt, D., Jones, S., Jewell, S., et al. (2005). Chronic stress and susceptibility to skin cancer. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 97, 1760–1767.Google Scholar
  242. Savage, D., Lindenbaum, J., van Ryzin, J., Struening, E., & Garrett, T. J. (1984). Race, poverty, and survival in multiple myeloma. Cancer, 54, 3085–3094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Savard, J., Simard, S., Blanchet, J., Ivers, H., & Morin, C. M. (2001). Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for insomnia in the context of breast cancer. Sleep, 24, 583–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Savard, J., Simard, S., Ivers, H., & Morin, C. M. (2005a). Randomized study on the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia secondary to breast cancer, Part I: Sleep and psychological effects. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 6083–6096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Savard, J., Simard, S., Ivers, H., & Morin, C. M. (2005b). Randomized study on the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia secondary to breast cancer, Part II: Immunologic effects. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 6097–6106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Sawyer, R. A., Selhorst, J. B., Zimmerman, L. E., & Hoyt, W. F. (1976). Blindness caused by photoreceptor degeneration as a remote effect of cancer. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 81, 606–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Schernhammer, E. S., Kroenke, C. H., Laden, F., & Hankinson, S. E. (2006). Night work and risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology, 17, 108–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Schiffman, S. S. (2007). Critical illness and changes in sensory perception. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 66, 331–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Schiffman, S. S., & Graham, B. G. (2000). Taste and smell perception affect appetite and immunity in the elderly. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54(Suppl.), S54–S63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Schiffman, S. S., & Miletic, I. D. (1999). Effect of taste and smell on secretion rate of salivary IgA in elderly and young persons. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 3, 158–164.Google Scholar
  251. Schiffman, S. S., & Warwick, Z. S. (1993). Effect of flavor enhancement of foods for the elderly on nutritional status food intake, biochemical indices and anthropometric measures. Physiology and Behavior, 53, 395–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Scholz, J., & Woolf, C. J. (2002). Can we conquer pain? Nature Neuroscience Supplement, 5, 1062–1067.Google Scholar
  253. Schubert, C., Hong, S., Natarajan, L., Mills, P. J., & Dimsdale, J. E. (2007). The association between fatigue and inflammatory marker levels in cancer patients: A quantitative review. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21, 413–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Sela, R., Bruera, E., Conner-Spady, B., Cumming, C., & Walker, C. (2002). Sensory and affective dimensions of advanced cancer pain. Psycho-Oncology, 11, 23–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Selye, H. (1975). Confusion and controversy in the stress field. Journal of Human Stress, 1, 37–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Selye, H. (1976). Forty years of stress research: Principal remaining problems and misconceptions. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 115, 53–56.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Sendo, F., Kato, T., & Yazawa, H. (1997). Modulation of neutrophil apoptosis by psychological stress and glucocorticoid. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 19, 511–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Sephton, S. E., Sapolsky, R. M., Kraemer, H. C., & Spiegel, D. (2000). Diurnal cortisol rhythm as a predictor of breast cancer survival. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92, 994–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Sephton, S., & Spiegel, D. (2003). Circadian disruption in cancer: A neuroendocrine-immune pathway from stress to disease? Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17, 321–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Shacter, E., & Weitzman, S. A. (2002). Chronic inflammation and cancer. Psychiatric Times Oncology, 16, 217–232.Google Scholar
  261. Sharifian, F. (2003). On cultural conceptualisations. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3, 188–207.Google Scholar
  262. Shen, C.-C., Hu, Y.-W., Hu, L.-Y., Hung, M.-H., Su, T.-P., Huang, M.-W., et al. (2013). The risk of cancer in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: A nationwide population-based study. PLoS ONE, 8, e57399.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Shi, Y., Devadas, S., Greeneltch, K. M., Yin, D., Mufson, R. A., & Zhou, J. (2003). Stressed to death: Implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17, S18–S26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Simeit, R., Deck, R., & Conta-Marx, B. (2004). Sleep management training for cancer patients with insomnia. Supportive Care in Cancer, 12, 176–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Simon, N. M., Smoller, J. W., McNamara, K. L., Maser, R. S., Zalta, A. K., Pollack, M. H., et al. (2006). Telomere shortening and mood disorders: Preliminary support for a chronic stress model of accelerated aging. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 432–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Skolin, I., Wahlin, Y. B., Broman, D. A., Koivisto Hursti, U.-K., Vikström Larsson, M., & Hernell, O. (2006). Altered food intake and taste perception in children with cancer after start of chemotherapy: Perspectives of children, parents and nurses. Supportive Care in Cancer, 14, 369–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Smets, E. M. A., Garssen, B., Schuster-Uitterhoeve, A. L. J., & de Haes, J. C. J. M. (1993). Fatigue in cancer patients. British Journal of Cancer, 68, 220–224.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Smith, R. S. (1991). The macrophage theory of depression. Medical Hypotheses, 35, 298–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Spiegel, D. (2008). Losing sleep over cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26, 2431–2432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Spiegel, D., Bloom, J. R., Kraemer, H. C., & Gottheil, E. (1989). Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Lancet, 2, 888–891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Spiegel, D., & Kato, P. M. (1996). Psychosocial influences on cancer incidence and progression. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 4, 10–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Spiegel, D., Kraemer, H. C., Bloom, J. R., & Gottheil, E. (1989). Effects of psychological treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. The Lancet, 334, 888–891.Google Scholar
  273. Spielman, A. J. (1986). Assessment of insomnia. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 11–25.Google Scholar
  274. Stiefel, F. (1993). Psychological aspects of cancer pain. Supportive Care in Cancer, 1, 130–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Stockley, W. W., & Stucker, F. J., Jr. (1987). Squamous cell carcinoma of the external ear: A review of 75 cases. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 97, 308–312.Google Scholar
  276. Stone, P., Richardson, A., Ream, E., Smith, A. G., Kerr, D. J., & Kearney, N. (2000). Cancer-related fatigue: Inevitable, unimportant and untreatable? Results of a multi-centre patient survey. Annals of Oncology, 11, 971–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Strumberg, D., Brügge, S., Korn, M. W., Koeppen, S., Ranft, J., Scheiber, G., et al. (2002). Evaluation of long-term toxicity in patients after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Annals of Oncology, 13, 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Sullivan, M. J. L., Thorn, B., Haythornthwaite, J., Keefe, F. J., Martin, M., Bradley, L., et al. (2001). Theoretical perspectives on the relation between catastrophizing and pain. Journal of Clinical Pain, 17, 52–64.Google Scholar
  279. Syrjala, K. L., Cummings, C., & Donaldson, G. W. (1992). Hypnosis or cognitive behavioral training for the reduction of pain and nausea during cancer treatment: A controlled clinical trial. Pain, 48, 137–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Syrjala, K. L., Donaldson, G. W., Davis, M. W., Kippes, M. E., & Carr, J. E. (1995). Relaxation and imagery and cognitive-behavioral training reduce pain during cancer treatment: A controlled clinical trial. Pain, 63, 189–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Taylor, S. E. (2010). Mechanisms linking early life stress to adult health outcomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States America, 107, 8507–8512.Google Scholar
  282. Taylor, L. M., Espie, C. A., & White, C. A. (2003). Attentional bias in people with acute versus persistent insomnia secondary to cancer. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 1, 200–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Theobald, D. E. (2004). Cancer pain, fatigue, distress, and insomnia in cancer patients. Clinical Cornerstone, 6(Suppl. 1D), S15–S21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Thirkill, C. E. (1994). Cancer associated retinopathy: The CAR syndrome. Neuro-ophthalmology, 14, 297–323.Google Scholar
  285. Thomas, K. S., Bower, J., Hoyt, M. A., & Sepah, S. (2010). Disrupted sleep in breast and prostate cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: The role of coping processes. Psycho-Oncology, 19, 767–776.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Timoshenko, A. V., Xu, G., Chakrabarti, S., Lala, P. K., & Chakraborty, C. (2003). Role of prostaglandin E2 receptors in migration of murine and human breast cancer cells. Experimental Cell Research, 289, 265–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Tjemsland, L., Søreide, J. A., Matre, R., & Malt, U. F. (1997). Preoperative psychological variables predict immunological status in patients with operable breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 6, 311–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Tomei, L. D., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Kennedy, S., & Glaser, R. (1990). Psychological stress and phorbol ester inhibition of radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Psychiatry Research, 33, 59–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Unternaehrer, E., Luers, P., Mill, J., Dempster, E., Meyer, A. H., Staehli, S., et al. (2012). Dynamic changes in DNA methylation of stress-associated genes (OXTR, BDNF) after acute psychosocial stress. Translational Psychiatry, 2, e150. doi: 10.1038/tp.2012.77. Published online August 14, 2012.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Valentine, A. D., & Meyers, C. A. (2001). Cognitive and mood disturbance as causes and symptoms of fatigue in cancer patients. Cancer, 92, 1694–1698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. van der Pompe, G., Antoni, M. H., Mulder, C. L., Heijnens, C., Goodkjn, K., de Graeffs, A., et al. (1994). Psychoneuroimmunology and the course of breast cancer: An overview. The impact of psychosocial factors on progression of breast cancer through immune and endocrine mechanisms. Psycho-Oncology, 3, 271–288.Google Scholar
  292. Verkasalo, P. K., Pukkala, E., Stevens, R. G., Ojamo, M., & Rudanko, S.-L. (1999). Inverse association between breast cancer incidence and degree of visual impairment in Finland. British Journal of Cancer, 80, 1459–1460.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Visser, M. R. M., & Smets, E. M. A. (1998). Fatigue, depression and quality of life in cancer patients: How are they related? Supportive Care in Cancer, 6, 101–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Vissoci Reiche, E. M., Odebrecht Vargas Nunes, S., & Kaminami, M. H. (2004). Stress, depression, the immune system, and cancer. Lancet Oncology, 5, 617–625.Google Scholar
  295. Vollmer-Conna, U. (2001). Acute sickness behaviour: An immune system-to-brain communication? Psychological Medicine, 31, 761–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. von Roenn, J. H., Cleeland, C. S., Gonin, R., Hatfield, A. K., & Pandya, K. J. (1993). Physician attitudes and practice in cancer pain management: A survey from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Annals of Internal Medicine, 119, 121–126.Google Scholar
  297. Vos, M. S., & de Haes, J. C. J. M. (2007). Denial in cancer patients, an explorative review. Psycho-Oncology, 16, 12–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Wagner, D., Cohn, H., & de Sá-Rocha, L. C. (2006). Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide in the social behavior of dominant and submissive mice. Physiology and Behavior, 87, 932–937.Google Scholar
  299. Wall, P. D. (1989). Introduction. In P. D. Wall & R. Melzack (Eds.), Textbook of pain (pp. 1–18). New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  300. Ward, S. E., Goldberg, N., Miller-McCauley, V., Mueller, C., Nolan, A., Pawlik-Plank, D., et al. (1993). Patient-related barriers to management of cancer pain. Pain, 52, 319–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Warr, D. G. (2008). Chemotherapy- and cancer-related nausea and vomiting. Current Oncology, 15(Suppl. 1), S4–S9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Watson, M., Haviland, J. S., Greer, S., Davidson, J., & Bliss, J. M. (1999). Influence of psychological response on survival in breast cancer: A population-based cohort study. Lancet, 354, 1331–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Watson, M., & Marvell, C. (1992). Anticipatory nausea and vomiting among cancer patients: A review. Psychology and Health, 6, 97–106.Google Scholar
  304. Watson, M., Meyer, L., Thomson, A., & Osofsky, S. (1998). Psychological factors predicting nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients on chemotherapy. European Journal of Cancer, 34, 831–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Waxler-Morrison, N., Hislop, T. G., Mears, B., & Kan, L. (1991). Effects of social relationships on survival for women with breast cancer. Social Science and Medicine, 33, 177–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Weisenberg, M. (1998). Cognitive aspects of pain and pain control. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 46, 44–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Wessely, S. (2001). Chronic fatigue: Symptom and syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134, 838–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Wickham, R. (2007). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: A review and implications for oncology nursing. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 11, 361–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Wilkie, D. J., Keefe, F. J., Dodd, M. J., & Copp, L. A. (1992). Behavior of patients with lung cancer: Description and associations with oncologic and pain variables. Pain, 51, 23l–240l.Google Scholar
  310. Wolf, S., Barton, D., Kottschade, L., Grothey, A., & Loprinzi, C. (2008). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: Prevention and treatment strategies. European Journal of Cancer, 44, 1507–1515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Yakirevitch, A., Talmi, Y. P., Baram, Y., Weitzen, R., & Pfeffer, M. R. (2005). Effects of cisplatin on olfactory function in cancer patients. British Journal of Cancer, 92, 1611–1613.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Yin, D., Tuthill, D., Mufson, R. A., & Shi, Y. (2000). Chronic restraint stress promotes lymphocyte apoptosis by modulating CD95 expression. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 191, 1423–1428.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Yirmiya, R., Avitsur, R., Donchin, O., & Cohen, E. (1995). Interleukin-1 inhibits sexual behavior in female but not in male rats. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 9, 220–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Zachariae, R., Paulsen, K., Mehlsen, M., Jensen, A. B., Johansson, A., & von der Maase, H. (2007). Chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and fatigue—The role of individual differences related to sensory perception and autonomic reactivity. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 376–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Zaza, C., & Baine, N. (2002). Cancer pain and psychosocial factors: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Pain Symptom Management, 24, 526–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Zhong, M., Boreman, M. L., Millena, A. C., & Khan, S. A. (2010). Oxytocin induces migration of prostate cancer cells: Involvement of Gi coupled signaling pathway. Molecular Cancer Research, 8, 1164–1172.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marisa Cordella
    • 1
  • Aldo Poiani
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Languages and Comparative Cultural StudiesUniversity of Queensland BrisbaneBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesMonash University ClaytonClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations