Citrus Juices and Prevention of Calcium Stones: Some, but Not All?

  • Michael P. Kurtz
  • Brian H. EisnerEmail author


Citrus juices and some other beverages are widely available, nonpharmacologic sources of citrate, a naturally occurring inhibitor of urinary stone formation. The mechanisms of citrate supplementation are complex, as urinary citrate levels are dependent not only on the citrate content of a given beverage, but also on the patient’s systemic acid–base status. Moreover, delivering an appropriate amount of citrate by juice or other beverage may be accompanied by a caloric intake that would make such a prescription inadvisable. Herein, we summarize all available English-language PUBMED-indexed literature on beverages and 24-h urine composition, as well as epidemiologic data on beverage intake and kidney stone risk with special emphasis on calcium urolithiasis.


Citrate Citrus juice Kidney stone Urolithiasis Lemonade Limeade Orange juice Cranberry juice Soda Cola Hypocitraturia 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyMassachusetts General Hospital, GRB 1102BostonUSA

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