Role of HMGB1 in Periodontal Disease

Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)


High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is highly expressed in the nucleus, where it regulates chromatin structure and transcription. HMGB1 is also released to the extracellular fluid upon tissue injury or inflammation, and triggers tissue repair and defense programs. The presence of high levels of HMGB1 has been reported in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from periodontal patients and some studies have suggested a role of HMGB1 in inflammatory periodontal tissues. In our previous study, immunohistochemical staining of gingiva showed that HMGB1 is dislocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of inflamed epithelial cells in pocket epithelium, whereas it is mainly present in the nucleus in the gingival epithelium. Proliferation of bacteria within the periodontal pocket is closely involved in the exacerbation of periodontal disease. Therefore, the periodontal pocket represents a unique pathological setting for a source of HMGB1 by bacterial insult.


Arthritis Ischemia Leukemia Recombination Cysteine 



Butyric acid


Gingival epithelial cells




Chronic periodontitis




Gingival crevicular fluid


Histone deacetylase


High-mobility group box-1






Periodontal ligament


Receptor for advanced glycation end products


Reactive oxygen species


Tumor necrosis factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Inorganic Materials, Institute of Biomaterial & BioengineeringTokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU)Chiyoda-kuJapan
  2. 2.Section of Biochemistry, Department of Hard Tissue Engineering, Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesTokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU)Bunkyo-kuJapan
  3. 3.Department of Periodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesTokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU)TokyoJapan

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