Impact on Biodiversity

  • José Falck-Zepeda
  • Patricia Zambrano
  • Melinda Smale
Part of the Natural Resource Management and Policy book series (NRMP, volume 37)


The impact of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on “the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity,” as stated in Article 26 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety ((Secretariat of the Convention of Biological Diversity 2000, p. 19), has generated a heated and polarized debate. On one side is the position of those who believe that not only economic but ethical, religious, and cultural considerations related to biodiversity should be taken into account. On the other side, stand those who believe that the impact of GMOs on the environment should be circumscribed to environmental assessments. Whatever the position, generating a useful analysis of the impacts of GMOs on biological diversity requires thoughtful definition of concepts and selection of appropriate valuation methods.


Ecosystem Service Taxonomic Diversity Plant Genetic Resource Hedonic Price Ecosystem Service Valuation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Falck-Zepeda
    • 1
  • Patricia Zambrano
    • 1
  • Melinda Smale
    • 2
  1. 1.International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)WashingtonUSA
  2. 2.207 Agriculture HallMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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