Techniques to Control Thin-Film Textures
In the last chapter, we discussed some possible origins of texture formation during growth, in particular, the selection of out-of-plane and in-plane crystal orientations when the flux is obliquely incident to the substrate. The exact angle of orientation depends on the incident flux angle. It has been shown that texture orientation as well as the morphology of the films can be controlled by dynamically varying the incident flux direction during deposition (He and Zhao, Nanoscale 3:2361–2375, 2011; Hawkeye and Brett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25:1317–1335, 2007; Karabacak and Lu, Handbook of Theoretical and Computational Nanotechnology, 729–779, 2005). This opens up endless possibilities for tailoring the desired texture for different applications. In this chapter, we will describe some of the strategies reported recently.
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