It is important to realize that cancer is not just one but many different diseases, each with distinct characteristics and therapeutic requirements. Genomic research has provided a stratification of cancer types. Genomics as applied to cancer or oncogenomics provides an unprecedented opportunity for the discovery of potential new targets. Through the establishment of a suite of research programs, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the USA is developing the interface of genomics and cancer. The components of the program, including the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP), the Cancer Molecular Analysis Project, and the Initiative in Chemical Genetics, provide a platform for the integration of basic and clinical research for the benefit of patients’ health. Oncogenomics has assumed importance as a guide to management and development of personalized cancer therapies. Gene expression profiling of tumors is also used for developing targeted anticancer therapies.