Working memory (WM) is usually defined as a cognitive system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as language comprehension, learning, and reasoning; WM requires the simultaneous storage and processing of information (Baddeley 1992).


Bilingual memory Digit span Second language learning Semantic span Working memory 



I am grateful to Natasha Aiguesvives for her support in editing this paper.


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Suggested Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfredo Ardila
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA

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