Advertisement

Diversity at the Margins: The Interconnections Between Homelessness, Sex Work, Mental Health, and Substance Use in the Lives of Sexual Minority Homeless Young People

Abstract

The unique challenges facing homeless sexual minority young people have received increasing attention in recent years. This chapter reviews the research surrounding LGBTQ young people on the street with a particular focus on the interconnections between homelessness, sex work, drug use, and mental health problems. Homeless sexual minority young people are consistently found to have higher rates of mental health problems, drug use, sexual health risk, and victimization than their heterosexual counterparts—findings that highlight the particular vulnerability of this group of young people. However, there is research that cautions against focusing on a single story by underscoring the resilience and creativity of homeless LGBTQ young people, the diversity of experience, and the opportunities that street life holds for finding acceptance and belonging. This chapter aims to capture the complexity of street life for homeless sexual minority young people and concludes with suggestions for avenues of future research and policy.

Keywords

Homelessness Sex work Mental health Addictions Drug use Youth 

References

  1. Abramovich, I. A. (2012). No safe place to go: LGBTQ youth homelessness in Canada-Reviewing the literature. Canadian Journal of Family and Youth, 4(1), 29–51.Google Scholar
  2. Adler, J. S. (1989). The historical analysis of the law of vagrancy. Criminology, 27(2), 209–230.Google Scholar
  3. Aguirre, A., & Brooks, J. (2001). City redevelopment policies and the criminalization of homelessness: A narrative case study. Research in Urban Sociology, 6, 75–105.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, D. M. (1980). Young male prostitutes: A psychosocial study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 9(5), 399–426.Google Scholar
  5. Amadio, D. M., & Chung, Y. B. (2004). Internalized homophobia and substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 17, 83–101.Google Scholar
  6. Amster, R. (2003). Patterns of exclusion: Sanitizing space, criminalizing homelessness. Social Justice, 30(1), 195.Google Scholar
  7. Arend, E. D. (2005). The politics of invisibility: Homophobia and low-income HIV-positive women who have sex with women. Journal of Homosexuality, 49(1), 97–122. doi: 10.1300/J082v49n01_05.Google Scholar
  8. Austin, S. B., Jun, H., Jackson, B., Spiegelman, D., Rich-Edwards, J., Corliss, H. L., et al. (2008). Disparities in child abuse victimization in lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Journal of Women’s Health, 17(4), 597–606.Google Scholar
  9. Balsam, K. F., Rothblum, E. D., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2005). Victimization over the life span: A comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 477–487.Google Scholar
  10. Baron, S. W. (2006). Street youth, strain theory, and crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 209–223.Google Scholar
  11. Beckett, K., & Herbert, S. K. (2011). Banished: The new social control in urban America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Benavie, A. (2009). Drugs: America’s holy war. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Bernstein, E. (2007). Sex work for the middle classes. Sexualities, 10(4), 473–488. doi: 10.1177/1363460707080984.Google Scholar
  14. Betteridge, G. (2005). Sex, work, rights: Reforming Canadian criminal laws on prostitution. Toronto, CAN: Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network.Google Scholar
  15. Bourgois, P., & Schonberg, J. (2009). Righteous dopefiend. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  16. Browne, J., & Minichiello, V. (1995). The social meanings behind male sex work: Implications for sexual interactions. British Journal of Sociology, 46(4), 598–622.Google Scholar
  17. Browne, J., & Minichiello, V. (1996). Research directions in male sex work. Journal of Homosexuality, 31(4), 29–56.Google Scholar
  18. Calhoun, T. C., & Weaver, G. (1996). Rational decision-making among male street prostitutes. Deviant Behavior, 17(2), 209–227. doi: 10.1080/01639625.1996.9968023.Google Scholar
  19. Clatts, M. C., & Davis, W. R. (1999). A demographic and behavioral profile of homeless youth in New York City: Implications for AIDS and outreach and prevention. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 13(3), 365–374.Google Scholar
  20. Cochran, B. N., Stewart, A. J., Ginzler, J. A., & Cauce, A. M. (2002). Challenges faced by homeless sexual minorities: Comparison of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender homeless adolescents with their heterosexual counterparts. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 773–777.Google Scholar
  21. Coker, T. R., Austin, B., & Schuster, M. A. (2010). The health and health care of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 457–477.Google Scholar
  22. Coleman, E. (1989). The development of male prostitution activity among gay and bisexual adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality, 17(1–2), 131–150.Google Scholar
  23. Collins, D. (2007). When sex work isn’t ‘work’. Tourist Studies, 7(2), 115–139. doi: 10.1177/1468797607083498.Google Scholar
  24. Connell, J. (2009). The personal safety of male prostitutes. In D. Canter, M. Ioannou, & D. Youngs (Eds.), Safer sex in the city: The experience and management of street prostitution (pp. 79–98). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  25. Coombs, N. R. (1974). Male prostitution: A psychosocial view of behavior. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 44, 782.Google Scholar
  26. Corliss, H. L., Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2002). Reports of parental maltreatment during childhood in a United States population-based survey of homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual adults. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26, 1165–1178.Google Scholar
  27. Courtney, M. E., & Dworsky, A. (2006). Early outcomes for young adults transitioning from out-of-home care in the USA. Child and Family Social Work, 11, 209–219.Google Scholar
  28. Daly, K. (1988). The social control of sexuality: A case study of the criminalization of prostitution in the progressive era. Research in Law, Deviance and Social Control, 9, 171–206.Google Scholar
  29. D’Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., Salter, N. P., Vasey, J. J., Starks, M. T., & Sinclair, K. O. (2005). Predicting the suicide attempts of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35(6), 646–660.Google Scholar
  30. Davies, P., & Feldman, R. (1999). Selling sex in Cardiff and London. In P. Aggleton (Ed.), Men who sell sex: International perspectives on male prostitution and HIV/AIDS (pp. 1–22). London, UK: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  31. De Rosa, C. J., Montgomery, S. B., Kipke, M. D., Iverson, E., Ma, J. L., & Unger, J. B. (1999). Service utilization among homeless and runaway youth in Los Angeles, California: Rates and reasons. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24(3), 190–200. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(98)00081-0 Google Scholar
  32. DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of homophobia, heterosexism, and stigmatization. In G. M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 138–159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Ditmore, M. H. (2011). Prostitution and sex work. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  34. Dordick, G. A. (1997). Something left to lose: Personal relations and survival among New York’s homeless. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Dunne, G., Prendergast, S., & Telford, D. (2002). Young, gay, homeless, and invisible: A growing population. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 4(1), 103–115.Google Scholar
  36. Earls, C. M., & David, H. (1989). A psychosocial study of male prostitution. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18(5), 401–419.Google Scholar
  37. Edelman, E. A. (2011). “This area has been declared a prostitution free zone”: Discursive formations of space, the state, and trans “sex worker” bodies. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(6–7), 848–864. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2011.581928.Google Scholar
  38. Escoffier, J. (2007). Porn star/stripper/escort: Economic and sexual dynamics in a sex work career. Journal of Homosexuality, 53(1–2), 173–200. doi: 10.1300/J082v53n01_08.Google Scholar
  39. Feinstein, R., Greenblatt, A., Hass, L., Kohn, S., & Rana, J. (2001). Justice for all? A report on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered youth in the New York juvenile justice system. New York, NY: Urban Justice Center.Google Scholar
  40. Frederick, T. J. (2012). Deciding how to get by: Subsistence choices among homeless youth in Toronto. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Toronto).Google Scholar
  41. Frederick, T. J., Kirst, M., & Erickson, P. G. (2012). Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation among street-involved youth in Toronto. Advances in Mental Health, 11(1), 8–17.Google Scholar
  42. Frederick, T. J., Ross, L. E., Bruno, T., & Erickson, P. G. (2011). Exploring gender and sexual minority status among street involved youth. Vulnerable Children & Youth Studies, 6(2), 166–183.Google Scholar
  43. Gaetz, S., & O’Grady, B. (2002). Making money: Exploring the economy of young homeless workers. Work, Employment & Society, 16(3), 433–456.Google Scholar
  44. Gaetz, S. (2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 46(4), 423–456.Google Scholar
  45. Gangamma, R., Slesnick, N., Toviessi, P., & Serovich, J. (2008). Comparison of HIV risks among gay, lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual homeless youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(4), 456–464.Google Scholar
  46. Garofalo, R., Wolf, R. C., Wissow, L. S., Woods, E. R., & Goodman, E. (1999). Sexual orientation and risk of suicide attempts among a representative sample of youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 153(5), 487–493. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.153.5.487.Google Scholar
  47. Gattis, M. N. (2011). An ecological systems comparison between homeless sexual minority youths and homeless heterosexual youths. Journal of Social Service Research, 39, 1–12. doi:  10.1080/01488376.2011.633814.
  48. Gibson, B. (1995). Male order: Life stories from boys who sell sex. London, UK: Cassell.Google Scholar
  49. Gordon, D. R. (1994). The return of the dangerous classes: Drug prohibition and policy politics (1st ed.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  50. Gowan, T. (2010). Hobos, hustlers, and backsliders: Homeless in San Francisco. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  51. Green, A. I. (2008). The social organization of desire: The sexual fields approach. Sociological Theory, 26(1), 25–60.Google Scholar
  52. Greene, J. M., Ennett, S. T., & Ringwalt, C. L. (1999). Prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1406–1409.Google Scholar
  53. Gwadz, M. V., Gostnell, K., Smolenski, C., Willis, B., Nish, D., Nolan, T. C.,… Ritchie, A. (2009). The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 357–377.Google Scholar
  54. Hagan, J., & McCarthy, B. (1997). Mean streets: Youth crime and homelessness. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Hammack, P. L., Thompson, E. M., & Pilecki, A. (2009). Configurations of identity among sexual minority youth: Context, desire, and narrative. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(7), 867–883.Google Scholar
  56. Harding, R., & Hamilton, P. (2009). Working girls: Abuse or choice in street-level sex work? A study of homeless women in Nottingham. British Journal of Social Work, 39(6), 1118–1137. doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bcm157.Google Scholar
  57. Herek, G. M. (2009). Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: Prevalence estimates from a national probability sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 54–74. doi: 10.1177/0886260508316477.Google Scholar
  58. Holmes, W. C., & Slap, G. B. (1998). Sexual abuse of boys: Definition, prevalence, correlates, sequlae, and management. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(21), 1855–1862.Google Scholar
  59. Hubbard, P., & Scoular, J. (2009). Making the vulnerable more vulnerable? The contradictions of British street prostitution policy. In D. Canter, M. Ioannou, & D. Youngs (Eds.), Safer sex in the city: The experience and management of street prostitution (pp. 135–154). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  60. Hwahng, S. J., & Nuttbrock, L. (2007). Sex workers, fem queens, and cross-dressers: Differential marginalizations and HIV vulnerabilities among three ethnocultural male-to-female transgender communities in New York City. Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC, 4(4), 36–59. doi: 10.1525/srsp.2007.4.4.36.Google Scholar
  61. Jeffery, L. A., & MacDonald, G. (2006). “It’s the money, honey”: The economy of sex work in the Maritimes. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue Canadienne De Sociologie, 43(3), 313–327.Google Scholar
  62. Karabanow, J. (2004). Being young and homeless: Understanding how youth enter and exit street life. New York, NY: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  63. Karabanow, J., Hughes, J., Ticknor, J., Kidd, S., & Patterson, D. (2010). The economics of being young and poor: How homeless youth survive in neo-liberal times. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, XXXVII(4), 39–63.Google Scholar
  64. Kaye, K. (2007). Sex and the unspoken in male street prostitution. Journal of Homosexuality, 53(1), 37–73.Google Scholar
  65. Kidd, S. A. (2004). “The walls were closing in and we were trapped”: A qualitative analysis of street youth suicide. Youth and Society, 36(1), 30–55.Google Scholar
  66. Kidd, S. A., & Kral, M. J. (2002). Suicide and prostitution among street youth: A qualitative analysis. Adolescence, 37(146), 411–430.Google Scholar
  67. Kipke, M. D., Montgomery, S. B., Simon, T. R., Unger, J. B., & Johnson, C. J. (1997a). Homeless youth: Drug use patterns and HIV risk profiles according to peer group affiliation. AIDS and Behavior, 1(4), 247.Google Scholar
  68. Kipke, M., Simon, T., Montgomery, S., Unger, J., & Iversen, E. (1997b). Homeless youth and their exposure to and involvement in violence while living on the street. Journal of Adolescent Health, 20, 360–367.Google Scholar
  69. Kirst, M., Frederick, T., & Erickson, P. G. (2011). Concurrent mental health and substance use problems among street-involved youth. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9, 543–553.Google Scholar
  70. Koken, J., Bimbi, D. S., & Parsons, J. T. (2009). Male and female escorts: A comparative analysis. In R. Weitzer (Ed.), Sex for sale: Prostitution, pornography, and the sex industry (2nd ed., pp. 205–232). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Kosciw, J. G. (2004). The 2003 National School Climate Survey: The school-related experiences of our nation’s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth. New York, NY: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network.Google Scholar
  72. Kosciw, J. G., Diaz, E. M., & Greytak, E. A. (2008). 2007 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York, NY: GLSEN.Google Scholar
  73. Lambda Legal, & Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP. (2006). 2005 workplace fairness survey. New York, NY: Lambda Legal.Google Scholar
  74. Lantz, S. (2005). Students working in the Melbourne sex industry: Education, human capital and the changing patterns of the youth labour market. Journal of Youth Studies, 8(4), 385–401. doi: 10.1080/13676260500431669.Google Scholar
  75. Laurindo da Silva, L. (1999). Travestis and gigolos: Male sex work and HIV prevention in France. In P. Aggleton (Ed.), Men who sell sex: International perspectives on male prostitution and AIDS (pp. 41–60). London, UK: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  76. Leary, D., & Minichiello, V. (2007). Exploring the interpersonal relationships in street-based male sex work: Results from an Australian qualitative study. Journal of Homosexuality, 53(1), 75–110.Google Scholar
  77. Leslie, M. B., Stein, J. A., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2002). Sex specific predictors of suicidality among runaway youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(1), 27–40.Google Scholar
  78. Livingston, J., & Swimar, B. (Producers), & Livingston, J. (Director). (1990). Paris is Burning [Motion picture]. United States: Off White Productions.Google Scholar
  79. Lopez-Embury, S., & Sanders, T. (2009). Sex workers, labour rights and unionization. In T. Sanders, M. O’Neill, & J. Pitcher (Eds.), Prostitution: Sex work, policy, and politics (pp. 94–110). London, UK: Sage.Google Scholar
  80. Lowman, J. (2009). Violence and the outlaw status of (street) prostitution in Canada. In D. Canter, M. Ioannou, & D. Youngs (Eds.), Safer sex in the city: The experience and management of street prostitution (pp. 169–189). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  81. Lucas, A. M. (2005). The work of sex work: Elite prostitutes’ vocational orientations and experiences. Deviant Behavior, 26(6), 513–546. doi: 10.1080/01639620500218252.Google Scholar
  82. Luckenbill, D. F. (1985). Entering male prostitution. Urban Life, 14(2), 131–153.Google Scholar
  83. Lutnick, A., & Cohan, D. (2009). Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: What female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA. Reproductive Health Matters, 17(34), 38–46. doi: 10.1016/S0968-8080(09)34469-9.Google Scholar
  84. Maher, L. (1997). Sexed work: Gender, race, and resistance in a Brooklyn drug market. New York, NY: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  85. Marshal, M. P., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., King, K. M., Miles, J., Gold, M. A., Morse, J. Q. (2008). Sexual orientation and adolescent substance use: A meta-analysis and methodological review. Addiction, 103(4), 546–556.Google Scholar
  86. Marshall, B. D., Shannon, K., Kerr, T., Zhang, R., & Wood, E. (2010). Survival sex work and increased HIV risk among sexual minority street-involved youth. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 53(5), 661–664.Google Scholar
  87. Martijn, C., & Sharpe, L. (2006). Pathways to youth homelessness. Social Science and Medicine, 62, 1–12.Google Scholar
  88. Marvasti, A. B. (2003). Being homeless: Textual and narrative constructions. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  89. McCabe, I., Acree, M., O’Mahony, F., McCabe, J., Kenny, J., Twyford, J.,… McGlanaghy, E. (2011). Male street prostitution in Dublin: A psychological analysis. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(8), 998–1021. doi:  10.1080/00918369.2011.598394.Google Scholar
  90. McCarthy, B. (1996). The attitudes and actions of others: Tutelage and Sutherland’s theory of differential association. British Journal of Criminology, 36(1), 135–147.Google Scholar
  91. Mercer, C. H., Bailey, J. V., Johnson, A. M., Erens, B., Wellings, K., Fenton, K. A., et al. (2007). Women who report having sex with women: British national probability data on prevalence, sexual behaviors, and health outcomes. American Journal of Public Health, 97(6), 1126–1133.Google Scholar
  92. Milburn, N. G., Ayala, G., Rice, E., Batterham, P., & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2006). Discrimination and exiting homelessness among homeless adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(4), 658–672.Google Scholar
  93. Mitchell, D. (1997). The annihilation of space by law: The roots and implications of anti-homeless laws in the United States. Antipode, 29(3), 303–335.Google Scholar
  94. Morrison, T. G., & Whitehead, B. W. (2007). Male sex work: A business doing pleasure. Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  95. National Alliance to End Homelessness. (2013). The state of homelessness in America 2013. Washington, D.C: NAEH.Google Scholar
  96. Nixon, K., Tutty, L., Downe, P., Gorkoff, K., & Ursel, J. (2002). The everyday occurrence: Violence in the lives of girls exploited through prostitution. Violence Against Women, 8, 1016–1043.Google Scholar
  97. Noell, J. W., & Ochs, L. (2001). Relationship of sexual orientation to substance use, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and other factors in a population of homeless adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 31–36.Google Scholar
  98. Ochs, R. (1996). Biphobia: It goes more than two ways. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 217–239). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  99. O’Grady, B., & Gaetz, S. (2004). Homelessness, gender, and subsistence: The case of Toronto street youth. Journal of Youth Studies, 7(4), 397–416.Google Scholar
  100. O’Grady, B., & Greene, C. (2003). A social and economic impact study of the Ontario safe streets act on Toronto squeegee workers. Online Journal of Justice Studies, 1(1). Google Scholar
  101. O’Neill, M., & Pitcher, J. (2010). Sex work, communities, and public policy in the UK. In M. H. Ditmore, A. Levy, & A. Willman (Eds.), Sex work matters (pp. 217–239). New York, NY: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  102. O’Reilly, M., Taylor, H. C., & Vostanis, P. (2009). “Nuts, schiz, psycho”: An exploration of young homeless people’s perceptions and dilemmas of defining mental health. Social Science and Medicine, 68(9), 1737–1744. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.02.033.Google Scholar
  103. Parsons, J. T., Bimbi, D. S., & Halkitis, P. N. (2001). Sexual compulsivity among gay/bisexual male escorts who advertise on the internet. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 8, 101–112.Google Scholar
  104. Perkins, R., & Bennett, G. (1985). Being a prostitute: Prostitute women and prostitute men. Sydney, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  105. Pettiway, L. E. (1996). Honey, honey, miss thang: Being black, gay, and on the streets. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Phoenix, J., & Oerton, S. (2005). Illicit and illegal: Sex, regulation and social control. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  107. Pleak, R. R., & Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L. (1990). Sexual behavior and AIDS knowledge of young male prostitutes in Manhattan. Journal of Sex Research, 27(4), 557–587.Google Scholar
  108. Porter, J., & Bonilla, L. (2009). The ecology of street prostitution. In R. Weitzer (Ed.), Sex for sale: Prostitution, pornography, and the sex industry (2nd ed., pp. 163–186). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  109. Prendergast, S., Dunne, G., & Telford, D. (2001). A story of “difference”, A different story: Young homeless lesbian, gay and bisexual people. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 21(4–6), 64–91.Google Scholar
  110. Psychiatric News (2003). Controversy continues to grow over DSM’s GID diagnosis. Psychiatric News, 38(14), 25–32.Google Scholar
  111. Quilgars, D., Johnsen, S., & Pleace, N. (2008). Youth homelessness in the UK. York, UK: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  112. Raising the Roof. (2009). Youth homelessness in Canada: The road to solutions. Toronto, CAN: Raising the Roof.Google Scholar
  113. Ray, N. (2006). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: An epidemic of homelessness. New York, NY: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute and the National Coalition for the Homeless.Google Scholar
  114. Rew, L., Whittaker, T. A., Taylor-Seehafer, M. A., & Smith, L. R. (2005). Sexual health risks and protective resources in gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual homeless youth. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 10(1), 11–19.Google Scholar
  115. Rice, E., Milburn, N. G., & Rotheram-Borus, M. (2007). Pro-social and problematic social network influences on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among newly homeless youth in Los Angeles. AIDS Care, 19(5), 697–704. doi: 10.1080/09540120601087038.Google Scholar
  116. Rickard, W. (2001). ‘Been there, seen it, done it, I’ve got the T-shirt’: British sex workers reflect on jobs, hopes, the future and retirement. Feminist Review, 67, 111–132.Google Scholar
  117. Robinson, T., & Davies, P. (1991). London’s homosexual male prostitutes: Power, peer groups and HIV. In P. Aggleton, G. Hart, & P. Davies (Eds.), AIDS: Responses, interventions, and care (pp. 95–110). London, UK: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  118. Robohm, J. S., Litzenberger, B. W., & Pearlman, L. A. (2003). Sexual abuse in lesbian and bisexual young women: Associations with emotional/behavioral difficulties, feelings about sexuality, and the “coming out” process. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 7(4), 31–47.Google Scholar
  119. Rosario, M., Hunter, J., & Gwadz, M. (1997). Exploration of substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(4), 454–476. doi: 10.1177/0743554897124003 Google Scholar
  120. Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., & Hunter, J. (2008). Predicting different patterns of sexual identity development over time among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: A cluster analytic approach. American Journal of Community Psychology, 42(3–4), 266–282.Google Scholar
  121. Rosen, E., & Venkatesh, S. A. (2008). A ‘perversion’ of choice: Sex work offers just enough in Chicago’s urban ghetto. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 37(4), 417–441. doi: 10.1177/0891241607309879.Google Scholar
  122. Rotheram-Borus, M. J., & Fernandez, M. I. (1995). Sexual orientation and developmental challenges experienced by gay and lesbian youths. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 26–34.Google Scholar
  123. Russell, S. T. (2006). Substance use and abuse and mental health among sexual-minority youths: Evidence from Add Health. Sexual orientation and mental health: Examining identity and development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people (pp. 13–35). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:  10.1037/11261-001.
  124. Saewyc, E. M., Skay, C. L., Pettingell, S. L., Reis, E. A., Bearinger, L., Resnick, M., et al. (2006). Hazards of stigma: The sexual and physical abuse of gay, lesbian, bisexual adolescents in the United States and Canada. Child Welfare, 85(2), 195–213.Google Scholar
  125. Saewyc, E. M. (2011). Research on adolescent sexual orientation: Development, health disparities, stigma, and resilience. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 256–272. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00727.x.Google Scholar
  126. Sanders, T. (2004). The risks of street prostitution: Punters, policy and protesters. Urban Studies, 41(9), 1703–1717. doi: 10.1080/0042098042000243110.Google Scholar
  127. Sanders, T. (2005). Sex work: A risky business. Portland, OR: Willan.Google Scholar
  128. Savin-Williams, R. (1994). Verbal and physical abuse as stressors in the lives of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths: Associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 261–269. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.261.Google Scholar
  129. Savin-Williams, R. C. (2001). A critique of research on sexual-minority youths. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 5–13.Google Scholar
  130. Selby, H., & Canter, D. (2009). The relationship between control strategies employed by street prostitutes and levels and varieties of client violence. In D. Canter, M. Ioannou, & D. Youngs (Eds.), Safer sex in the city (pp. 13–29). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  131. Shelden, R. G. (2001). Controlling the dangerous classes: A critical introduction to the history of criminal justice. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  132. Simmons, M. (1999). Theorizing prostitution: The question of agency. Sexwork and sex workers (pp. 125–148) New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  133. Simon, P. M., Morse, E. V., Balson, P. M., Osofsky, H. J., & Gaumer, H. R. (1993). Barriers to human immunodeficiency virus related to risk reduction among male street prostitutes. Health Education Quarterly, 20(2), 261–273.Google Scholar
  134. Smith, N. J. (2012). Body issues: The political economy of male sex work. Sexualities, 15(5–6), 586–603. doi: 10.1177/1363460712445983.Google Scholar
  135. Smith, M. D., & Grov, C. (2011). In the company of men: Inside the lives of male prostitutes. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  136. Smith, L. H., Guthrie, B. J., & Oakley, D. J. (2005). Studying adolescent male sexuality: Where are we? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(4), 361–377. doi: 10.1007/s10964-005-5762-5.Google Scholar
  137. Spicer, S. S. (2010). Healthcare needs of the transgender homeless population. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 14, 320–339.Google Scholar
  138. Steele, L. S., Ross, L. E., Dobinson, C., Veldhuizen, S., & Tinmouth, J. M. (2009). Women’s sexual orientation and health: Results from a Canadian population-based survey. Women and Health, 49(5), 353–367.Google Scholar
  139. Stella. Legalization vs. decriminalization. Retrieved, 2012, from http://www.chezstella.org/stella/?q=en/debate
  140. Stoltz, J. M., Shannon, K., Kerr, T., Zhang, R., Montaner, J. S., & Wood, E. (2007). Associations between childhood maltreatment and sex work in a cohort of drug-using youth. Social Science and Medicine, 65(6), 1214–1221. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.05.005.Google Scholar
  141. Szymanski, D. M., Kashubeck-West, S., & Meyer, J. (2008). Internalized heterosexism. The Counseling Psychologist, 36(4), 525–574.Google Scholar
  142. Thukral, J., & Ditmore, M. (2003). Revolving door: An analysis of street based prostitution in New York City. New York, NY: Sex Workers’ Project Urban Justice Center.Google Scholar
  143. Tyler, K. A. (2009). Risk factors for trading sex among homeless young adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(2), 290–297. doi: 10.1007/s10508-007-9201-4.Google Scholar
  144. Tyler, K. A. (2008). A comparison of risk factors for sexual victimization among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual homeless young adults. Violence and Victims, 23(5), 586–602.Google Scholar
  145. Tyler, K. A., & Johnson, K. A. (2006). Trading sex: Voluntary or coerced? The experiences of homeless youth. The Journal of Sex Research, 43(3), 208–216.Google Scholar
  146. Ueno, K. (2005). Sexual orientation and psychological distress in adolescence: Examining interpersonal stressors and social support processes. Social Psychology Quarterly, 68(3), 258–277.Google Scholar
  147. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2010). The 2009 annual homeless assessment report. Washington, D.C.: Office of Community Development and Planning.Google Scholar
  148. Valentine, G., & Skelton, T. (2003). Finding oneself, losing oneself: The lesbian and gay ‘scene’ as a paradoxical space. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 274, 849–866.Google Scholar
  149. Van Leeuwen, J. M., Boyle, S., Salomonsen-Sautel, S., Baker, N. D., Garcia, J. T., Hoffman, A., et al. (2006). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: An eight-city public health perspective. Child Welfare, 85(2), 151.Google Scholar
  150. van Wormer, K., & McKinney, R. (2003). What schools can do to help gay/lesbian/bisexual youth: A harm reduction approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409–420.Google Scholar
  151. Venema, P. U., & Visser, J. (1990). Safer prostitution: A new approach in Holland. In M. Plant (Ed.), AIDS, drugs, and prostitution (pp. 41–60). London, UK: Tavistock/Routledge.Google Scholar
  152. Visano, L. A. (1987). This idle trade: The occupational patterns of male prostitution. Concord: VitaSana Books.Google Scholar
  153. Vitulli, E. (2010). A defining moment in civil rights history? The employment non-discrimination act, trans-inclusion, and homonormativity. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 7(3), 155–167. doi: 10.1007/s13178-010-0015-0.Google Scholar
  154. Vrangalova, Z., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (2012). Mostly heterosexual and mostly gay/lesbian: Evidence for new sexual orientation identities. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 85–101. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-9921-y.Google Scholar
  155. Wacquant, L. J. D. (2009). Punishing the poor: The neoliberal government of social insecurity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Walls, N. E., & Bell, S. (2011). Correlates of engaging in survival sex among homeless youth and young adults. Journal of Sex Research, 48, 423–436. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2010.501916.Google Scholar
  157. Walls, N. E., Potter, C., & Van Leeuwen, J. (2009). Where risk and protective factors operate differently: Homeless sexual minority youth and suicide attempts. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(3), 235–257.Google Scholar
  158. Wasserman, J. A., & Clair, J. M. (2010). At home on the street: People, poverty, and a hidden culture of homelessness. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  159. Watson, J. (2011). Understanding survival sex: Young women, homelessness and intimate relationships. Journal of Youth Studies, 14(6), 639–655.Google Scholar
  160. Weinberg, M. S., Shaver, F. M., & Williams, C. J. (1999). Gendered sex work in the San Francisco tenderloin. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 28(6), 503–521.Google Scholar
  161. Weitzer, R. (2009a). Sociology of sex work. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 213–234. doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-120025.Google Scholar
  162. Weitzer, R. (2009b). Prostitution control in America: Rethinking public policy. In D. Canter, M. Ioannou, & D. Youngs (Eds.), Safer sex in the city: The experience and management of street prostitution (pp. 191–209). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  163. Weitzer, R. (2010). The movement to criminalize sex work in the United States. Journal of Law and Society, 37(1), 61–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6478.2010.00495.x.Google Scholar
  164. Welle, D. L., Fuller, S. S., Mauk, D., & Clatts, M. C. (2006). The invisible body of queer youth: Identity and health in the margins of lesbian and trans communities. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 10(1–2), 43–71. doi: 10.1300/J155v10n01_03.Google Scholar
  165. West, D. J., & deVilliers, B. (1992). Male prostitution: Gay sex services in London. London, UK: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  166. Whitbeck, L. B., Chen, X., Hoyt, D. R., Tyler, K. A., & Johnson, K. D. (2004). Mental disorder, subsistence strategies, and victimization among gay, lesbian, and bisexual homeless and runaway adolescents. The Journal of Sex Research, 41(4), 329.Google Scholar
  167. Whitbeck, L. B., & Hoyt, D. R. (1999). Nowhere to grow: Homeless and runaway adolescents and their families. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyer.Google Scholar
  168. Whitbeck, L. B., Hoyt, D. R., Yoder, K. A., Cauce, A. M., & Paradise, M. (2001). Deviant behavior and victimization among homeless and runaway adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(11), 1175–1204.Google Scholar
  169. Whitbeck, L. B., & Simons, R. L. (1991). Sexual abuse as a precursor to prostitution and victimization among adolescent and adult homeless women. Journal of Family Issues, 12(3), 361–379.Google Scholar
  170. Wilson, E. C., Garofalo, R., Harris, R. D., Herrick, A., Martinez, M., Martinez, J., et al. (2009). Transgender female youth and sex work: HIV risk and a comparison of life factors related to engagement in sex work. AIDS and Behavior, 13(5), 902–913. doi: 10.1007/s10461-008-9508-8.Google Scholar
  171. Woronoff, R., Estrada, R., & Sommer, S. (2006). Out of the margins: A report on regional listening forums highlighting the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth in care. New York, NY: Child Welfare League of America/Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund.Google Scholar
  172. Wright, E. R., & Perry, B. L. (2006). Sexual identity distress, social support, and the health of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 51(1), 81–110. doi: 10.1300/J082v51n01_05.Google Scholar
  173. Yu, V. (2010). Shelter and transitional housing for transgender youth. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 14(4), 340–345. doi: 10.1080/19359705.2010.504476.Google Scholar
  174. Ziyadeh, N. J., Prokop, L. A., Fisher, L. B., Rosario, M., Field, A. E., Camargo, C. A., Jr, & Austin, S. B. (2007). Sexual orientation, gender, and alcohol use in a cohort study of U.S. adolescent girls and boys. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 87, 119–130.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Toronto Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations