Frequency Response

  • Karl A. SeelerEmail author


Sinusoidal excitation of dynamic systems is common. Sinusoidal excitation arises from rotation of elements within the system or environment, and wave phenomena, internal or external to the system. It is cyclic or periodic. The sinusoid period and its inverse frequency affect the system’s dynamic response. The characteristics of sinusoids allow them to be superposed, to approximate arbitrarily shaped periodic inputs, including square waves or pulse trains. The steady-state response of a linear system to a sinusoidal input is sinusoidal. In general, the steady-state output sinusoid’s magnitude or amplitude differs from that of the input sinusoid. Input and output sinusoids peak at different times. The steady-state response of a system to sinusoidal inputs across a range of frequencies is called the system’s frequency response, which is represented graphically by Bode and Nyquist plots.


Transfer Function Phase Angle Corner Frequency Input Frequency Bide Plot 
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References and Suggested Reading

  1. Ogata K (2003) System dynamics, 4th edn. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
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  4. Shearer JL, Murphy AT, Richardson HH (1971) Introduction to system dynamics. Addison-Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentLafayette CollegeEastonUSA

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