Starches in FoodOpen image in new window

  • Vickie A. Vaclavik
  • Elizabeth W. Christian
Chapter
Part of the Food Science Text Series book series (FSTS)

Abstract

Starch is a plant polysaccharide stored in roots and seeds of plants, and in the endosperm of a grain kernel. It provides humans with energy (4 cal/g), and is hydrolyzed into glucose, supplying the glucose that is necessary for brain and central nervous system functioning.

Keywords

Sugar Hydrolysis Starch Corn Microwave 

Notes

Glossary

Adsorb

Surface adherence of gas, liquids, or solids onto a solid.

Amylose

Long, linear chain composed of thousands of glucose molecules joined by an α-1,4-gycosidic linkage.

Amylopectin

Branched chains of glucose units joined by α-1,4 linkages, with α-1,6 branching occurring every 15–30 units.

Birefringence

A Maltese cross appearance on each uncooked crystalline starch granule when viewed under a polarizing microscope due to light refraction in two directions.

Dextrin

Glucose polymers; a product of the early stages of starch hydrolysis.

Gel

Elastic solid formed upon cooling of a gelatinized starch paste; a two-phase system that contains a solid continuous phase and a liquid dispersed phase.

Gelatinization

Starch granules take up water and swell irreversibly upon heating, and the organized granular pattern is disrupted.

Gelation

Formation of a gel upon cooling of a gelatinized starch paste.

Granule

Starch grain of long-chain glucose polymers in an organized pattern; granule shape is particular to each starch type.

Imbibition

Starch granules taking up water and swelling as it is exposed to moist heat.

Maltodextrin

Starch hydrolysis derivative that may be used to simulate fat in formulations.

Modified starch

Specific chemical modification of natural starches to physically create properties that contribute to shelf stability, appearance, convenience, and performance in food preparation.

Retrogradation

Reverting back, or reassociation of amylose as the gelatinized starch once again forms a more crystalline structure upon cooling.

Separating agent

Prevents lump formation in a starch mixture. Physically separates starch grains and allows their individual swelling.

Sol

A two-phase system with a solid dispersed in a liquid continuous phase.

Spherical aggregate

Open, porous starch granules with spaces that can be filled and used to transport materials such as flavor, essences, and other compounds.

Starch

Carbohydrate made up of two molecules—amylose and amylopectin.

Suspension

Large particles undissolved in the surrounding medium. Particles are too large to form a solution or a sol upon heating.

Syneresis

“Weeping” or water loss from a cooked, cooled gel due to excessive retrogradation or improper gel formation.

Viscosity

Resistance to flow of a liquid when force is applied. A measure of how easily a liquid will flow. Thin liquids have a low viscosity. Thick liquids or gels have a high viscosity and flow slowly.

References

  1. Freeland-Graves JH, Peckham GC (1996) Foundations of food preparation, 6th edn. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Hazen C (2012). Fiber files. Food Product Design September: pp 102–112Google Scholar

Bibliography

  1. A. E. Staley Manufacturing Co. Decatur, ILGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennion M (1980) The science of food. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennion M, Scheule B (2009) Introductory foods, 13th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vickie A. Vaclavik
    • 1
  • Elizabeth W. Christian
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition & Food ScienceTexas Women’s UniversityDentonUSA

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