Sleep Deprivation as a Therapy in Psychiatry

Chapter

Abstract

Circadian rhythm and sleep research have led to non-pharmaceutical therapies of mood disorder that can be used in everyday practice. These clinical interventions, named chronotherapeutics, are based on controlled exposures to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms. Sleep deprivation (SD) is one of these interventions and directly targets the sleep–wake rhythm. The principal indication of therapeutic sleep deprivation is the presence of depression irrespective of the syndromal classification. The reported response rates to the treatment are similar to those observed with antidepressant drugs but sleep deprivation generally causes a transient antidepressant effect in most of the patients showing a relapse after a night of recovery sleep, even when a complete response has been achieved the evening before. In recent years, different methods for increasing and sustaining the efficacy of sleep deprivation via combinatorial strategies have been studied and nowadays sleep deprivation has been used by many psychiatrists and it could be considered the most rapid antidepressant available today.

Keywords

Placebo Depression Lithium Schizophrenia Serotonin 

References

  1. 1.
    Schulte W. Zum Priblem der provokation und kupierung von Melancholischen Phasen. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr. 1971;109:427–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pflug B, Tolle R. Therapy of endogenous depressions using sleep deprivation. Practical and theoretical consequences. Nervenarzt. 1971;42:117–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leibenluft E, Wehr TA. Is sleep deprivation useful in the treatment of depression? Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149:159–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wirz-Justice A, Benedetti F, Berger M, Lam RW, Martiny K, Terman M, Wu JC. Chronotherapeutics (light and wake therapy) in affective disorders. Psychol Med. 2005;35:939–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benedetti F, Barbini B, Colombo C, Smeraldi E. Chronotherapeutics in a psychiatric ward. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:509–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu JC, Bunney WE. The biological basis of an antidepressant response to sleep deprivation and relapse: review and hypothesis. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:14–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Szuba MP, Baxter Jr LR, Fairbanks LA, Guze BH, Schwartz JM. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on the diurnal variation of mood and motor activity in major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;30:817–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barbini B, Colombo C, Benedetti F, Campori E, Bellodi L, Smeraldi E. The unipolar-bipolar dichotomy and the response to sleep deprivation. Psychiatry Res. 1998;79:43–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Benedetti F, Barbini B, Fulgosi MC, Colombo C, Dallaspezia S, Pontiggia A, Smeraldi E. Combined total sleep deprivation and light therapy in the treatment of drug-resistant bipolar depression: acute response and long-term remission rates. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:1535–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Echizenya M, Suda H, Takeshima M, Inomata Y, Shimizu T. Total sleep deprivation followed by sleep phase advance and bright light therapy in drug-resistant mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2012;144(1–2):28–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuhs H, Tolle R. Sleep deprivation therapy. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;29:1129–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Babson KA, Trainor CD, Feldner MT, Blumenthal H. A test of the effects of acute sleep deprivation on general and specific self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms: an experimental extension. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2010;41:297–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Joffe RT, Swinson RP. Total sleep deprivation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1988;77:483–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roy-Byrne PP, Uhde TW, Post RM. Effects of one night’s sleep deprivation on mood and behavior in panic disorder. Patients with panic disorder compared with depressed patients and normal controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1986;43:895–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fahndrich E. Effects of sleep deprivation on depressed patients of different nosological groups. Psychiatry Res. 1981;5:277–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koranyi EK, Lehmann HE. Experimental sleep deprivation in schizophrenic patients. AMA Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1960;2:534–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuriyama K. Sleep medicine for the prevention of prolonged stress and posttraumatic stress disorder. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi. 2012;114:136–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Delva NJ, Woo M, Southmayd SE, Hawken ER. Myocardial infarction during sleep deprivation in a patient with dextrocardia—a case report. Angiology. 2001;52:83–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Suh SY, Kim JW, Choi CU, Kim EJ, Rha SW, Park CG, Seo HS, Oh DJ. Spontaneous coronary dissection associated with sleep deprivation presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2007;115:e78–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nakken KO, Solaas MH, Kjeldsen MJ, Friis ML, Pellock JM, Corey LA. Which seizure-precipitating factors do patients with epilepsy most frequently report? Epilepsy Behav. 2005;6:85–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bertolucci PH, Andrade LA, Lima JG, Carlini EA. Total sleep deprivation and Parkinson disease. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 1987;45:224–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Demet EM, Chicz-Demet A, Fallon JH, Sokolski KN. Sleep deprivation therapy in depressive illness and Parkinson’s disease. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1999;23:753–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hogl B, Peralta C, Wetter TC, Gershanik O, Trenkwalder C. Effect of sleep deprivation on motor performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2001;16:616–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lauterbach EC. Sleep benefit and sleep deprivation in subgroups of depressed patients with Parkinson’s disease. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:782–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Benedetti F, Zanardi R, Colombo C, Smeraldi E. Worsening of delusional depression after sleep deprivation: case reports. J Psychiatr Res. 1999;33:69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Elsenga S, Beersma D, Van den Hoofdakker RH. Total and partial sleep deprivation in clomipramine-treated endogenous depressives. J Psychiatr Res. 1990;24:111–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fischer H, Tolle R, Telger K. Sleep deprivation: temporal aspects of partial sleep deprivation in the treatment of depression. Schweiz Arch Neurol Psychiatr. 1990;141:351–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Martiny K, Refsgaard E, Lund V, Lunde M, Sorensen L, Thougaard B, Lindberg L, Bech P. A 9-week randomized trial comparing a chronotherapeutic intervention (wake and light therapy) to exercise in major depressive disorder patients treated with duloxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012;73:1234–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Riemann D, Wiegand M, Lauer CJ, Berger M. Naps after total sleep deprivation in depressed patients: are they depressiogenic? Psychiatry Res. 1993;49:109–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hemmeter U, Bischof R, Hatzinger M, Seifritz E, Holsboer-Trachsler E. Microsleep during partial sleep deprivation in depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:829–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gillin JC, Kripke DF, Janowsky DS, Risch SC. Effects of brief naps on mood and sleep in sleep-deprived depressed patients. Psychiatry Res. 1989;27:253–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wiegand M, Riemann D, Schreiber W, Lauer CJ, Berger M. Effect of morning and afternoon naps on mood after total sleep deprivation in patients with major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;33:467–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vogel GW, Vogel F, McAbee RS, Thurmond AJ. Improvement of depression by REM sleep deprivation. New findings and a theory. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1980;37:247–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grozinger M, Kogel P, Roschke J. Effects of REM sleep awakenings and related wakening paradigms on the ultradian sleep cycle and the symptoms in depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2002;36:299–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schilgen B, Tolle R. Partial sleep deprivation as therapy for depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1980;37:267–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Goetze U, Tolle R. Antidepressive effect of partial sleep deprivation during the 1st half of the night. Psychiatr Clin (Basel). 1981;14:129–49.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sack DA, Duncan W, Rosenthal NE, Mendelson WE, Wehr TA. The timing and duration of sleep in partial sleep deprivation therapy of depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1988;77:219–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Giedke H, Geilenkirchen R, Hauser M. The timing of partial sleep deprivation in depression. J Affect Disord. 1992;25:117–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Giedke H, Wormstall H, Haffner HT. Therapeutic sleep deprivation in depressives, restricted to the two nocturnal hours between 3:00 and 5:00. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1990;14:37–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wirz-Justice A, Van den Hoofdakker RH. Sleep deprivation in depression: what do we know, where do we go? Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:445–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Van den Hoofdakker RH, Beersma DG. On the contribution of sleep wake physiology to the explanation and the treatment of depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1988;341:53–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Reinink E, Bouhuys AL, Gordijn MC, Van Den Hoofdakker RH. Prediction of the antidepressant response to total sleep deprivation of depressed patients: longitudinal versus single day assessment of diurnal mood variation. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;34:471–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bouhuys AL, van den Burg W, van den Hoofdakker RH. The relationship between tiredness prior to sleep deprivation and the antidepressant response to sleep deprivation in depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1995;37:457–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Giedke H, Schwarzler F. Therapeutic use of sleep deprivation in depression. Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6:361–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nissen C, Feige B, Konig A, Voderholzer U, Berger M, Riemann D. Delta sleep ratio as a predictor of sleep deprivation response in major depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2001;35:155–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kasper S, Moises HW, Beckmann H. Dexamethasone suppression test combined with total sleep deprivation in depressed patients. Psychiatr Clin (Basel). 1983;16:17–25.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Baumgartner A, Riemann D, Berger M. Neuroendocrinological investigations during sleep deprivation in depression. II. Longitudinal measurement of thyrotropin, TH, cortisol, prolactin, GH, and LH during sleep and sleep deprivation. Biol Psychiatry. 1990;28:569–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lanquillon S, Krieg JC, Bening-Abu-Shach U, Vedder H. Cytokine production and treatment response in major depressive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000;22:370–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sluzewska A, Sobieska M, Rybakowski JK. Changes in acute-phase proteins during lithium potentiation of antidepressants in refractory depression. Neuropsychobiology. 1997;35:123–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Benedetti F, Lucca A, Brambilla F, Colombo C, Smeraldi E. Interleukine-6 serum levels correlate with response to antidepressant sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26:1167–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Voderholzer U, Fiebich BL, Dersch R, Feige B, Piosczyk H, Kopasz M, Riemann D, Lieb K. Effects of sleep deprivation on nocturnal cytokine concentrations in depressed patients and healthy control subjects. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012;24:354–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Alesci S, Martinez PE, Kelkar S, Ilias I, Ronsaville DS, Listwak SJ, Ayala AR, Licinio J, Gold HK, Kling MA, Chrousos GP, Gold PW. Major depression is associated with significant diurnal elevations in plasma interleukin-6 levels, a shift of its circadian rhythm, and loss of physiological complexity in its secretion: clinical implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:2522–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Benedetti F, Bernasconi A, Blasi V, Cadioli M, Colombo C, Falini A, Lorenzi C, Radaelli D, Scotti G, Smeraldi E. Neural and genetic correlates of antidepressant response to sleep deprivation: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of moral valence decision in bipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:179–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Benedetti F, Smeraldi E. Neuroimaging and genetics of antidepressant response to sleep deprivation: implications for drug development. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15:2637–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Benedetti F, Serretti A, Colombo C, Campori E, Barbini B, di Bella D, Smeraldi E. Influence of a functional polymorphism within the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene on the effects of total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1450–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Benedetti F, Barbini B, Bernasconi A, Fulgosi MC, Colombo C, Dallaspezia S, Gavinelli C, Marino E, Pirovano A, Radaelli D, Smeraldi E. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene variants influence antidepressant response to repeated total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1863–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Benedetti F, Barbini B, Bernasconi A, Fulgosi MC, Dallaspezia S, Gavinelli C, Locatelli C, Lorenzi C, Pirovano A, Radaelli D, Smeraldi E, Colombo C. Acute antidepressant response to sleep deprivation combined with light therapy is influenced by the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(108/158)Met polymorphism. J Affect Disord. 2010;121:68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Benedetti F, Serretti A, Colombo C, Lorenzi C, Tubazio V, Smeraldi E. A glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta promoter gene single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with age at onset and response to total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression. Neurosci Lett. 2004;368:123–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Benedetti F, Dallaspezia S, Lorenzi C, Pirovano A, Radaelli D, Locatelli C, Poletti S, Colombo C, Smeraldi E. Gene-gene interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta and serotonin transporter on human antidepressant response to sleep deprivation. J Affect Disord. 2011;136:514–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kvist J, Kirkegaard C. Effect of repeated sleep deprivation on clinical symptoms and the TRH test in endogenous depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1980;62:494–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Benedetti F, Colombo C. Sleep deprivation in mood disorders. Neuropsychobiology. 2011;64:141–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Holsboer-Trachsler E, Hemmeter U, Hatzinger M, Seifritz E, Gerhard U, Hobi V. Sleep deprivation and bright light as potential augmenters of antidepressant drug treatment–neurobiological and psychometric assessment of course. J Psychiatr Res. 1994;28:381–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Benedetti F, Barbini B, Campori E, Colombo C, Smeraldi E. Dopamine agonist amineptine prevents the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation. Psychiatry Res. 1996;65:179–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Szuba MP, Baxter Jr LR, Altshuler LL, Allen EM, Guze BH, Schwartz JM, Liston EH. Lithium sustains the acute antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation: preliminary findings from a controlled study. Psychiatry Res. 1994;51:283–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Benedetti F, Barbini B, Bernasconi A, Fulgosi MC, Campori E, Colombo C, Dallaspezia S, Lorenzi C, Pontiggia A, Radaelli D, Smeraldi E. Lithium overcomes the influence of 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism on antidepressant response to sleep deprivation. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:249–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wehr TA, Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Gillin JC. Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation in bright and dim light. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1985;72:161–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Neumeister A, Goessler R, Lucht M, Kapitany T, Bamas C, Kasper S. Bright light therapy stabilizes the antidepressant effect of partial sleep deprivation. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;39:16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Colombo C, Lucca A, Benedetti F, Barbini B, Campori E, Smeraldi E. Total sleep deprivation combined with lithium and light therapy in the treatment of bipolar depression: replication of main effects and interaction. Psychiatry Res. 2000;95:43–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Loving RT, Kripke DF, Shuchter SR. Bright light augments antidepressant effects of medication and wake therapy. Depress Anxiety. 2002;16:1–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    van den Burg W, Bouhuys AL, van den Hoofdakker RH, Beersma DG. Sleep deprivation in bright and dim light: antidepressant effects on major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 1990;19:109–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Albert R, Merz A, Schubert J, Ebert D. Sleep deprivation and subsequent sleep phase advance stabilizes the positive effect of sleep deprivation in depressive episodes. Nervenarzt. 1998;69:66–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Berger M, Vollmann J, Hohagen F, Konig A, Lohner H, Voderholzer U, Riemann D. Sleep deprivation combined with consecutive sleep phase advance as a fast-acting therapy in depression: an open pilot trial in medicated and unmedicated patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154:870–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Riemann D, Konig A, Hohagen F, Kiemen A, Voderholzer U, Backhaus J, Bunz J, Wesiack B, Hermle L, Berger M. How to preserve the antidepressive effect of sleep deprivation: a comparison of sleep phase advance and sleep phase delay. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;249:231–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wu JC, Kelsoe JR, Schachat C, Bunney BG, DeModena A, Golshan S, Gillin JC, Potkin SG, Bunney WE. Rapid and sustained antidepressant response with sleep deprivation and chronotherapy in bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:298–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Benedetti F, Barbini B, Campori E, Fulgosi MC, Pontiggia A, Colombo C. Sleep phase advance and lithium to sustain the antidepressant effect of total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression: new findings supporting the internal coincidence model? J Psychiatr Res. 2001;35:323–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Stone M, Laughren T, Jones ML, Levenson M, Holland PC, Hughes A, Hammad TA, Temple R, Rochester G. Risk of suicidality in clinical trials of antidepressants in adults: analysis of proprietary data submitted to US Food and Drug Administration. BMJ. 2009;339:b2880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Baving L, Maes H, Bohus M, Lis S, Krieger S, Olbrich H, Berger M. Can negative self-schemes in depressives be altered through sleep deprivation? J Affect Disord. 1997;42:93–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wehr TA, Goodwin FK, Wirz-Justice A, Breitmaier J, Craig C. 48-hour sleep-wake cycles in manic-depressive illness: naturalistic observations and sleep deprivation experiments. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39:559–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Peet M. Induction of mania with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. Br J Psychiatry. 1994;164:549–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Frye MA, Helleman G, McElroy SL, Altshuler LL, Black DO, Keck Jr PE, Nolen WA, Kupka R, Leverich GS, Grunze H, Mintz J, Post RM, Suppes T. Correlates of treatment-emergent mania associated with antidepressant treatment in bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166:164–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wirz-Justice A, Benedetti F, Terman M. Chronotherapeutics for affective disorders A clinician’s manual for light and wake therapy. Basel: Karger; 2009.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kruger S, Trevor Young L, Braunig P. Pharmacotherapy of bipolar mixed states. Bipolar Disord. 2005;7:205–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Basheer R, Bauer A, Elmenhorst D, Ramesh V, McCarley RW. Sleep deprivation upregulates A1 adenosine receptors in the rat basal forebrain. Neuroreport. 2007;18:1895–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Conti B, Maier R, Barr AM, Morale MC, Lu X, Sanna PP, Bilbe G, Hoyer D, Bartfai T. Region-specific transcriptional changes following the three antidepressant treatments electro convulsive therapy, sleep deprivation and fluoxetine. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:167–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wirz-Justice A, Tobler I, Kafka MS, Naber D, Marangos PJ, Borbely AA, Wehr TA. Sleep deprivation: effects on circadian rhythms of rat brain neurotransmitter receptors. Psychiatry Res. 1981;5:67–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Benedetti F, Colombo C, Serretti A, Lorenzi C, Pontiggia A, Barbini B, Smeraldi E. Antidepressant effects of light therapy combined with sleep deprivation are influenced by a functional polymorphism within the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:687–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gerner RH, Post RM, Gillin JC, Bunney Jr WE. Biological and behavioral effects of one night’s sleep deprivation in depressed patients and normals. J Psychiatr Res. 1979;15:21–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ebert D, Feistel H, Kaschka W, Barocka A, Pirner A. Single photon emission computerized tomography assessment of cerebral dopamine D2 receptor blockade in depression before and after sleep deprivation–preliminary results. Biol Psychiatry. 1994;35:880–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ressler KJ, Nemeroff CB. Role of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. Depress Anxiety. 2000;12 Suppl 1:2–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Salomon RM, Delgado PL, Licinio J, Krystal JH, Heninger GR, Charney DS. Effects of sleep deprivation on serotonin function in depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1994;36:840–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Grossman GH, Mistlberger RE, Antle MC, Ehlen JC, Glass JD. Sleep deprivation stimulates serotonin release in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neuroreport. 2000;11:1929–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zant JC, Leenaars CH, Kostin A, Van Someren EJ, Porkka-Heiskanen T. Increases in extracellular serotonin and dopamine metabolite levels in the basal forebrain during sleep deprivation. Brain Res. 2011;1399:40–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Parekh PI, Ketter TA, Altshuler L, Frye MA, Callahan A, Marangell L, Post RM. Relationships between thyroid hormone and antidepressant responses to total sleep deprivation in mood disorder patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:392–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Szuba MP, Altshuler LL, Baxter Jr LR. Thyroid function and partial sleep deprivation response. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49:581–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Benedetti F, Calabrese G, Bernasconi A, Cadioli M, Colombo C, Dallaspezia S, Falini A, Radaelli D, Scotti G, Smeraldi E. Spectroscopic correlate of antidepressant response to sleep deprivation and light therapy: a 3.0 T study of bipolar depression. Psychiatry Res. 2009;173(3):238–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Vyazovskiy VV, Cirelli C, Pfister-Genskow M, Faraguna U, Tononi G. Molecular and electrophysiological evidence for net synaptic potentiation in wake and depression in sleep. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:200–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Grimes CA, Jope RS. The multifaceted roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in cellular signaling. Prog Neurobiol. 2001;65:391–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Martinek S, Inonog S, Manoukian AS, Young MW. A role for the segment polarity gene shaggy/GSK-3 in the drosophila circadian clock. Cell. 2001;105:769–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Deboer T, Vansteensel MJ, Detari L, Meijer JH. Sleep states alter activity of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:1086–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Tononi G, Cirelli C. Sleep and synaptic homeostasis: a hypothesis. Brain Res Bull. 2003;62:143–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mongrain V, La Spada F, Curie T, Franken P. Sleep loss reduces the DNA-binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to specific clock genes in the mouse cerebral cortex. PLoS One. 2011;6:e26622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bunney BG, Bunney WE. Mechanisms of rapid antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation therapy: clock genes and circadian rhythms. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;73(12):1164–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical NeurosciencesOspedale San RaffaeleMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations