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Disorders of Extracellular Fluid Volume: Basic Concepts

  • Alluru S. ReddiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In Chap. 3, we discussed how NaCl and water are handled by various segments of the nephron. Since Na+ is the major extracellular electrolyte, the total amount of this electrolyte and its accompanying anion (Cl) determine the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume. Therefore, retention or excretion of Na+ by the kidneys is critical for the regulation of ECF volume. This regulation of NaCl is precise in normal individuals. In a steady state, urinary Na+ approximates dietary Na+, as the kidneys are the major excretory organs of Na+ besides gastrointestinal tract and skin. Low salt intake results in low excretion of Na+. Conversely, high salt intake results in high excretion of Na+. Any disturbance in this regulation activates or inhibits neural and hormonal mechanisms, leading to appropriate change in Na+ excretion by the kidneys. This chapter discusses the basic concepts that characterize ECF volume depletion, and conditions that are associated with the development of volume expansion and edema formation.

Keywords

Disorders of extracellular fluid volume Extracellular fluid volume Effective arterial blood volume Edema formation 

Suggested Reading

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    Doucet A, Favre G, Deschènes G. Molecular mechanism of edema formation in nephrotic syndrome: therapeutic implications. Ped Nephrol. 2007;22:1983–90.Google Scholar
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    Rondon-Berrios H. New insights into the pathophysiology of oedema in nephritic syndrome. Nefrologia. 2011;31:148–54.Google Scholar
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    Schrier RW. Decreased effective blood volume in edematous disorders: what does this mean? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:2028–31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine Division of Nephrology and HypertensionRutgers New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA

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