Advertisement

Intravenous Fluids: Composition and Indications

  • Alluru S. ReddiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews various fluids available for intravenous (IV) administration. The IV fluids can be broadly divided into two categories: crystalloids and colloids. Crystalloid solutions contain water, electrolytes, and/or glucose, whereas colloids include mostly albumin and blood products. IV solutions can be isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic. In general, isotonic solutions are used to treat extracellular fluid (ECF) volume depletion, hypotonic solutions to replace ECF and intracellular fluid (ICF) water loss, and hypertonic solutions to correct symptomatic hyponatremia. Hypertonic saline is often used in trauma settings because it decreases the intracranial pressure in patients with head trauma and for patients following burns. It is important to know the composition of commonly used crystalloids and colloids before we understand their indications.

Keywords

Intravenous fluids Crystalloid IV fluids Colloid IV fluids Volume contraction Fluid management in the elderly 

Suggested Reading

  1. 1.
    Brar RS, Hollenberg SM. Today’s approach to fluid resuscitation when vascular permeability is increased. How quickly you give fluids is often more important than what you give. J Crit Illness. 1996;11:539–49.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choi PT, Yip G, Quinonez LG, Cook DJ. Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:200–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaufman BS, editor. Fluid resuscitation of the critically ill. Crit Care Clin. 1992;8:235–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rivers EP, Jaehne AK, Eichhorn-Wharry L, et al. Fluid therapy in septic shock. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2010;16:297–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine Division of Nephrology and HypertensionRutgers New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations