Disorders of Water Balance: Physiology

  • Alluru S. ReddiEmail author


In this chapter, we will discuss how plasma osmolality and water balance are maintained. Like Na+ balance, water balance is determined by the amount of water that is ingested and excreted. Therefore, water intake equals water loss. In a normal individual, the major source of water intake is oral fluids. Water is also derived from other sources such as solid foods and intermediary metabolism. Intravenous fluids form the principal source of water intake in hospitalized patients. Dialysis patients may also gain water during treatments.


Disorders of water balance Water balance disorders Fluid and electrolyte disorders Plasma osmolality Thirst control ADH synthesis Propressophysin 

Suggested Reading

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    Brown D, Fenton RA. The cell biology of vasopressin action. In: Taal MW et al. Editor. Brenner & Rector’s the kidney. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2012. pp. 353–83.Google Scholar
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    Verkman AS. Aquaporins in clinical medicine. Annu Rev Med. 2012;63:306–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine Division of Nephrology and HypertensionRutgers New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA

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