Advertisement

Practical Approach to Cervicogenic Headache

  • Samer N. NarouzeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Cervicogenic headache was initially defined as unilateral headache that is provoked by neck movement or pressure over tender points in the neck with associated reduced range of movement of the cervical spine. The headache occurs in non-clustering episodes and is usually non-throbbing in nature, originating from the neck and spreading over the occipital, temporal, and frontal regions. These clinical criteria are not enough to make a definite diagnosis of cervicogenic headache, as it is sometimes difficult to differentiate clinically between cervicogenic headache, migraine, and tension-type headache. Response to diagnostic block of the nerve supply of these cervical structures or intra-articular injection of local anesthetic into the affected joint is now considered a major criterion in the diagnosis of cervicogenic headache.

Keywords

Tender Point Cervical Radiculopathy Cervicogenic Headache Great Occipital Nerve Occipital Nerve Stimulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Sjaastad O, Saunte C, Hovdahl H, et al. Cervicogenic headache. A hypothesis. Cephalalgia. 1983;3:249–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fredriksen TA, Hovdal H, Sjaastad O. Cervicogenic headache: clinical manifestation. Cephalalgia. 1987;7:147–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sjaastad O, Fredriksen TA, Pfaffenrath V. Cervicogenic headache: diagnostic criteria. Headache. 1990;30:725–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sjaastad O, Fredriksen TA. Cervicogenic headache: criteria, classification and epidemiology. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2000;18(2 Suppl 19):S3–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sjaastad O, Fredriksen TA, Pfaffenrath V. Cervicogenic headache: diagnostic criteria. The Cervicogenic Headache International Study Group. Headache. 1998;38:442–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leone M, D’Amico D, Grazzi L, et al. Cervicogenic headache: a critical review of the current diagnostic criteria. Pain. 1998;78:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Suijlekom JA, de Vet HCW, van den Berg SGM, Weber WEJ. Interobserver reliability of diagnostic criteria for cervicogenic headache. Cephalalgia. 1999;19:817–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sjaastad O, Bakketeig LS. Prevalence of cervicogenic headache: Vaga study of headache epidemiology. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008;117:173–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society. The international classification of headache disorders (2nd edn.). Cephalalgia. 2004;24 Suppl 1:1–160.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edn. (beta version). Cephalalgia. 2013;33(9):629–808.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bogduk N. The neck and headache. Neurol Clin. 2004;22(1):151–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meloche JP, Bergeron Y, Bellavance A, et al. Painful intervertebral dysfunction: Robert maigne’s original contribution to headache of cervical origin. The Québec headache study group. Headache. 1993;33:328–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bartsch T, Goadsby PJ. Stimulation of the greater occipital nerve induces increased central excitability of dural afferent input. Brain. 2002;125:1496–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bartsch T, Goadsby PJ. Increased responses in trigeminocervical nociceptive neurons to cervical input after stimulation of the dura mater. Brain. 2003;126:1801–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aprill C, Axinn MJ, Bogduk N. Occipital headaches stemming from the lateral atlanto-axial (C1-2) joint. Cephalalgia. 2002;22(1):15–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bogduk N. The clinical anatomy of cervical dorsal rami. Spine. 1982;7:319–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lord S, Barnsley L, Wallis B, Bogduk N. Third occipital headache: a prevalence study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994;57:1187–90.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    van Suijlekom JA, Weber WE, van Kleef M. Cervicogenic headache: techniques of diagnostic nerve blocks. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2000;18:S39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Silverman SB. Cervicogenic headache: interventional, anesthetic, and ablative treatment. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2002;6:308–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sjaastad O, Stolt-Nielsen A, Blume H, et al. Cervicogenic headache. Long-term results of radiofrequency treatment of the planum nuchale. Funct Neurol. 1995;10:265–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Horowitz MB, Yonas H. Occipital neuralgia treated by intradural dorsal nerve root sectioning. Cephalalgia. 1993;13:354–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dubuisson D. Treatment of occipital neuralgia by partial posterior rhizotomy at C1-3. J Neurosurg. 1995;82:591–6.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weiner RL, Reed KL. Peripheral neurostimulation for control of intractable occipital neuralgia. Neuromodulation. 1999;2:217–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kuritzky A. Cluster headache-like pain caused by an upper cervical meningioma. Cephalalgia. 1984;4:185–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sharma RR, Parekh HC, Prabhu S, et al. Compression of the C2 root by a rare anomalous ectatic vertebral artery. J Neurosurg. 1993;78:669–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Poletti CE, Sweet WH. Entrapment of the C2 root and ganglion by the atlantoepistrophic ligament: clinical syndrome and surgical anatomy. Neurosurgery. 1990;27:288–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Travell J, Rinzler SH. The myofascial genesis of pain. Postgrad Med. 1952;11:425–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Freund B, Schwartz M. Post-traumatic myofascial pain of the head and neck. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2002;6:361–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cummings TM, White AR. Needling therapy in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: a systemic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82:986–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cheshire WP, Abashian SW, Mann JD. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. Pain. 1994;59:65–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Freund BJ, Schwartz M. Treatment of whiplash associated neck pain [corrected] with botulinum toxin-A: a pilot study. J Rheumatol. 2000;27:481–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wheeler AH, Goolkasian P, Gretz SS. A randomized, double-blind, prospective pilot study of botulinum toxin injection for refractory, unilateral, cervicothoracic, paraspinal, myofascial pain syndrome. Spine. 1998;23:1662–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Grubb SA, Kelly CK. Cervical discography: clinical implications from 12 years of experience. Spine. 2000;25:1382–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Blume HG. Cervicogenic headaches: radiofrequency neurotomy and the cervical disc and fusion. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2000;18:S53–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Pain Medicine, Western Reserve HospitalCuyahoga FallsUSA

Personalised recommendations