Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

  • Jillian Redgate
  • Sumit Singh


The functions of artificial nutrition, especially enteral nutrition, exceed provision of energy and nutrients in order to prevent or reverse malnutrition. Initiation of early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients can prevent loss of gut integrity and gut-associated immunity, modulate whole-body immune function and the inflammatory response, and improve clinical outcomes. Immunonutrition including pharmaconutrients such as arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids may be especially beneficial in several patient populations, including surgical, trauma, burn, and other critically ill patients. Clinicians should consider using nutrition support to alter disease progression in order to achieve favorable outcomes. Due to numerous potential drug-nutrient interactions and complications of both enteral and parenteral nutrition, safe administration requires close monitoring by well-trained clinicians. This makes a team approach preferable to ensure patient safety and provide the best possible medical and nutritional outcomes.


Parenteral Nutrition Enteral Nutrition Nutrition Support Severe Acute Pancreatitis Peripherally Insert Central Catheter 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nutrition and Food ServicesVA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare SystemLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA

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